Although the university system in theFRG is largely regulated by the state, the freedom of research, teaching and study guaranteed by the constitution leaves room for competition between the universities. In research, there is competition with institutions outside the universities and with the research departments of large companies. There is also severe competition for the research funds provided by the Federal Government, theDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and German trade and industry. In teaching, research projects are being carried out in order to develop criteria for the measurement of performance. This, together with a system of reporting, will facilitate comparisons and thus encourage competition. TheBMBW has contributed to these processes in teaching and research by funding projects on the development of performance criteria and by preparing legislative measures designed to promote competition.
This paper reports a comparative study of the non-isothermal decompositions of the heteropolyacids HPM and HPVM, with structures
consisting of Keggin units (KUs). Non-isothermal analysis at low heating rates demonstrated the existence of 4 crystal hydrate
species, depending on the temperature. The stability domains of the anhydrous forms of HPM and HPVM were found to be 150–380°C,
respectively. Processing of the TG curves obtained at different heating rates by the Ozawa method revealed that the decomposition
of anhydrous HPM takes place according to a unitary mechanism, whilst for anhydrous HPVM two mechanisms are observed. Thus,
the first part of the constitution water is lost simultaneously with the departure of vanadium from the KU as VO2+, while the second part is lost at higher temperatures as in the case HPM.
The mixtures of CuCl2 and KC1 with Cu to K molar ratios from 0.2 to 2.0 were analysed by thermogravimetry in air and argon atmosphere under different
conditions. The samples differed in the temperature of their preparation. Conclusions were drawn concerning the phase changes
and the constitution of the CuCl2−KC1 system.
One of the persistent fears regarding the accession countries envisions that these countries will not catch up with the prevailing practices of constitutionalism and the rule of law that allegedly constitute the common tradition of Europe. It is believed, and in many regards rightly so, that accession to the Union will push Eastern Europe towards the values and institutional settings of modernity. Given the process and political consequences of the accession, as well as for other, historical and cultural reasons, the short term modernization effects of the membership might be limited, even counterproductive. This paper discusses the impact of the current "Europeanization" on the public understanding and institutional structures of constitutional democracy in the new member states. Further, it evaluates the foreseeable impacts of the emerging European Constitution on the constitutional structures (the new checks and balances) in the new member states, except the human rights aspects of constitutionalism.
The Constitution comprises general clauses and notions whose meaning it does not specify in detail-and this meaning can be established by Constitutional Court. In the Polish doctrine of Constitutional law, opinions about the legal status of the Preamble are diversified. The dominant view in the contemporary doctrine of Constitutional law is that the Preamble has a normative character. The Constitutional Court has many times drawn upon the provisions of the Preamble in its rulings. The provisions of the Preamble dealing with Constitutional principles and values form a “bridge” between natural law and positivist law, which may be conducive to a fuller protection of human rights in the state, and consequently a better operation of Constitutional democracy. But the higher the frequency of principle- and value-invoking notions in the Constitutional text (usually in the Preamble), the greater and the more real is the authority of those who interpret these notions-and impart sense to them-in conditions of a particular constitutional dispute.
The essay analyses the fourth and fifth amendments of the Hungarian Fundamental Law with special respect to the opinion of the Venice Commission and the resolution of the European Parliament. It will be pointed out that the fourth amendment transferred several legal regulations into the Fundamental Law which were previously qualified as unconstitutional by the Hungarian Constitutional Court. The Fundamental Law contains at the same time the declaration of a fundamental right and the unconstitutional limitation of it by the latter regulation. The inconsistency is evident, therefore the Constitutional Court has to choose in the future between the contradictory constitutional regulations. A possibility to solve this dilemma could be the separation of the legal norms of the constitution as lex generalis (e.g. rule of law, human dignity) and lex specialis which could not derogate the lex generalis, and ca nnot be applied accordingly.
Most theories of perception assume a rigid relationship between objects of the physical world and the corresponding mental representations. We show by a priori reasoning that this assumption is not fulfilled. We claim instead that all object-representation correspondences have to be learned. However, we cannot learn to perceive all objects that there are in the world. We arrive at these conclusions by a combinatory analysis of a fictive stimulus world and the way to cope with its complexity, which is perceptual learning. We show that successful perceptual learning requires changes in the representational states of the brain that are not derived directly from the constitution of the physical world. The mind constitutes itself through perceptual learning.
High alumina cement (HAC) concrete undergoes with ageing a change in mineral constitution known as conversion which may be accompanied by a loss in strength. The amount by which this change in composition has gone, measured by the ratio of CaO·Al2O3·10 H2O to Al2O3·3 H2O is known as the degree of conversion (Dc). The faster the conversion goes the greater the loss in strength.
institutions would also strengthen the position of the president in relation to the parliament. The 1997 Constitution requires certain corrective measures to remove the errors disclosed in the text. These changes however do not require the adoption of a new