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Abstract  

This paper describes an evaluation of activation analysis by delayed neutron counting to determine uranium and thorium simultaneously in geological materials and to measure235U/238U isotopic ratios. A procedure to isolate the thorium before the irradiation was studied and adapted for use when the interference of uranium makes the nondestructive thorium analysis impossible.235U/238U ratios were determined in standards with235U abundances from about 0.5 to 93%, in milligram size samples. Discussion on precision, accuracy and total error of the method is presented.

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Abstract  

Nuclear and atomic methods of analysis, which rely on the detection of prompt and delayed radiations, emitted as a result of interactions between radiation probe and target, for determining the elemental concentration in vivo and in vitro, are summarily reviewed, with reference to bone analysis; the demand for methods which provide information about elemental distribution is highlighted. The way neutrons can be used as probes to investigate the composition and structure of objects by employed the principles of computerised tomography are outlined and the novel modes of utilisation are briefly described: neutron transmission tomography, neutron induced prompt gammaray emission tomography and neutron induced delayed gamma-ray emission tomography. The latter method, alternatively termed neutron activation tomography, is then used to determine on-destructively the distribution of Na in selected planes of a human tibia, in vitro, by measuring the activity of24Na using a NaI(Tl) and a Ge(Li) detector in a tomographic scanner which incorporates a microcomputer for control, data acquisition and image reconstruction. The problems of attenuation and scattering are discussed as are the limitations for quantitative results of this useful new mode of tomography which provided information about composition and elemental distribution in a material.

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Abstract  

High resolution (K) X-ray spectrometry preceded by activation with fast neutrons, neutrons from an isotope-source, and charged particles, is a novel development in the field of activation analysis. This paper describes the capabilities of these techniques and evaluates their analytical potential for the specific determination of the rare earths and Platinum Group Elements (PGE's) in small samples. The investigation took the form of a feasibility study which relied heavily on the low energy sensitivity of the detector used. Detection of the delayed X-rays was achieved with a 100 mm2 Ge detector whose ability to produce optimum photopeak-to-noise ratios formed the basis exploited in this investigation. Analytical conditions are demonstrated over a range of concentrations for the elements of interest and the potential of the technique for application to the general routine analysis of the rare earths and PGE's are discussed.

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Abstract  

A fast, sensitive and routine methode for quantitative analysis of uranium and thorium in natural samples is described. The identification is done by counting the delayed neutrons of mainly the short living fission products after sample-irradiation with and without cadmium shielding. The rabbit system used is installed at the Forschungsreaktor Neuherberg, type TRIGA Mark III. The limits of detection (relative to 2 g of sample weight) were specified to be 20 ppb (U) and 3 ppm (Th) using puls irradiations, 150 ppb (U) and 15 ppm (Th) using 1 MW steady state reactor power. A single determination is done within less than 60 s. The methods were proved by about 3000 measurements also including comparison experiments.

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Generalizations of Bihari inequality for some classes of inequalities containing multiple integrals are proved.

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