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Wheat endosperm storage proteins are the major components of gluten. They play an important role in dough properties and in bread making quality in various wheat varieties. In the present study, the different alleles encoded at the 5 glutenin loci were identified from a set of 38 tetraploid wheat germplasm obtained from interspecific crosses between durum wheats (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) and their relatives (T. dicoccum Schübl. and T. polonicum L.) using SDS-PAGE. At Glu-A1 and Glu-B1, encoding high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), 2 and 4 alleles were observed, respectively. Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) displayed similar polymorphism, as 3, 5 and 3 alleles were identified at loci Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-B2, respectively. One new allele was detected at Glu-B3 locus and appeared in nine accessions obtained from five crosses. This allele codes for five subunits (2 + 8 + 9 + 13 + 18), encoded by the Glu-B3b without subunit 16 plus subunits 2 and 18. A total of 38 patterns resulted from the genetic combination of the alleles encoding at the five glutenin loci. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variation in Glu-1, Glu-3 and Glu-B2 loci (0.54). The germplasm analyzed exhibited allelic variation in HMW and LMW glutenin subunit composition and the variation differed from that of tetraploid wheats of other countries. The presence of high quality alleles in glutenin loci have led the accessions to be considered as an asset in breeding programs aimed for wheat quality.

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In many world regions, osmotic and salt stresses are becoming the primary environmental conditions limiting successful establishment of crops. The old durum wheat landraces may provide a source of genes useful to enhance crop resilience to the abiotic stresses of dryland areas or foreseen as a result of climate change. With this in mind, in order to determine the effects of salt and osmotic stresses on durum wheat germination, an old Sicilian durum wheat landrace “Timilia” and a relatively recent cultivar “Mongibello” were investigated at various iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl and mannitol at osmotic potentials of: 0 – control, –0.125, –0.250, –0.500 and –0.750 MPa.

Under stress conditions, different germination and early growth behavior was observed in the two durum wheat genotypes. Timilia presented almost stable germination even at the highest osmotic stresses (96.7% and 88.3% seed germination at 0 and –0.750 MPa, respectively) showing a higher capacity of seed imbibition than Mongibello. The latter thus showed a higher sensitivity than the old landrace to the studied stresses. The variability ascertained in the response to salinity stress indicate that Timilia could be a source of interesting genes for breeding programs.

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Quality of durum wheat is of importance for pasta production. Our aim was to evaluate the quality of released durum wheat at Ethiopia by the use of pheno-quality traits as well as composition and amount and size distribution of proteins; these attributes were also compared with the same ones for Spanish released wheat grown in the same environment. Large variation was obtained among the released durum wheat for all parameters investigated. The evaluation of protein parameters indicated the varieties Klinto, LD-357, Tob-66 and Ude to have suitable protein composition for pasta production, while Tob-66 showed high protein concentration and Tob-66, LD-357 and Yerer showed high gluten strength. The most promising Ethiopian variety for pasta production as to the results from the present study was Tob-66. Also, LD-357 showed promising protein characteristics, although the kernels were white, which is not desired for pasta production. Some of the evaluated varieties might be of interest for production of local leavened bread although the quality is not good enough for pasta production.

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Bridge crosses utilizing the D genome synthetic hexaploids (SH), Triticum turgidum / Aegilops tauschii (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD), are a potent means of improving bread wheat ( T. aestivum ) for biotic and abiotic stresses. The synthetic germplasm enables incorporation of the genetic diversity of T. turgidum cultivars together with the attributes of the Ae. tauschii accessions. In this research, SH wheats were screened for karnal bunt in Obregon, Mexico over six crop cycles and several SHs were earlier identified with an immune response. These SHs have unique Ae. tauschii accessions as parents. Phenologically descriptors and additional trait evaluations led us to develop a sub-set of the most desirable combinations for wheat breeding. The SH wheats are generally tall, late to mature, have good agronomic type, and are non-free threshing with a high 1000 kernel weight. All have a spring growth habit with several possessing multiple stress resistances. The resistance exhibited by SH wheats has been transferred into elite but KB susceptible bread wheat cultivars thus generating a new and unique genetic resource that can be readily exploited by conventional breeding programs.

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Farmers of North America — Durum Wheat: 07/08 Situation and Outlook. www.fna.ca/index 2; December 5, 2007. Fedak, G. 1999. Molecular aids for integration of alien chromatin through

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Autran, J.C., Abecassis, J., Feillet, P. 1986. Statistical evaluation of different technological and biochemical tests for quality assessment in durum wheats. Cereal Chem. 63 :390–394. Feillet P

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87 902 908 García del Moral, L.F., Rharrabti, Y., Villegas, D., Royo, C. 2003. Evaluation of grain yield and its components in durum wheat under

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. , Lemmens , M. , Prodi , A. 2012 . Validation of a modified Petri-dish test to quantify aggressiveness of Fusarium graminearum in durum wheat . Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 132 : 381 – 391

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Shantaram , M. ( 2017 ): Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against toxigenic fungi . Int. J. Curr. Res. Aca. Rev. 5 , 1 – 8 . Aoues , K. , Boutoumi , H. and Benrima , A. ( 2017 ): Phytosanitary status of local durum wheat stored

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indices in durum wheat. Crop Sci. 42 :1547–1555. Royo C. Relationship between growth traits and spectral vegetation indices in durum wheat Crop Sci

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