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Abstract  

As a corollary of former studies, high performance in Brazilian Management Sciences during the period of 1981 to 1995 is put to scrutiny. Information on the 66 papers registered to this field in the ISI databases for this time interval were retrieved, edited and processed as to elicit patterns.Occurrences of highly cited papers seemed haphazard but the presence of collaborative work consistently emerged as an important driving factor for good performance. International collaboration showed the most expressive impact over chances of citation but any form of collaboration seemed to have some effect, even those represented by single authors with double allegiance. Simple addition of authors, nonetheless, had no effect, and thus collaboration involving authors of common institutional affiliation showed the performance of single authored papers.Cluster analysis allowed the identification of patterns of performance, and groups of best performers showed higher levels of international collaboration. The institutional composition of the clusters is presented.

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The present study undertakes the review of one of the essential authorities of the Hungarian Constitutional Court: the issue of abstract subsequent norm control, which is currently amongst the most significant questions. The possibility of the constitutional review of the Supreme Court's directives on unifying the case law is subject to debate in legal literature and in the intercourse between the two organs as well. This study intends to elicit the nature of the problem through the elaboration of relating regulation and by utilizing certain Constitutional Court decisions concerning the subject. It will arrive at the conclusion that the present regulation also gives scope to the Constitutional Court review of directives on unifying the case law. The paper gives a survend evaluation of the solutions involved in the draft of the new Constitutional Court Act too.

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Until recently the etiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was considered uniform. The infectious agent was thought to be a single strain of prion (posttranslationally altered form of normal prion protein: PrPSc) retaining its biochemical and biological characteristics during interspecies transmission. However, alternate PrPSc signatures through large-scale screening have recently been detected. In addition, genetic alterations governing susceptibility to prion infection and a mutation (E211K) capable of eliciting spontaneous BSE have been demonstrated. Thus, the spectrum of BSEs have broadened and three PrPSc variants (BSE-C, BSE-H and BSE-L) are now defined. Moreover, a new condition resembling BSE, idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis (IBNC), has been described that may also turn out to be a prion disease. Since one of the new BSE variants, L-type BSE, proved highly pathogenic detection and further characterization of the new conditions are essential.

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Quality of life (QOL) was evaluated in bitches with mammary tumours (MTs) by applying a scale to assess QOL in dogs with pain secondary to cancer. Two groups were constituted: Group 1 with 80 bitches with MT, oncologically classified as stage I (mean age ± SD = 9.9 ± 3.8 years), and Group 2 consisting of 80 healthy bitches without MT (mean age: 7.7 ± 1.8 years). The results were based on responses from owners using a standardised, internationally accepted pain-scale questionnaire. This prospective and descriptive study showed that 63% of the dogs in Group 1 had a change in QOL due to the presence of MT. The risk of QOL impairment was 2.1 times higher in Group 1 animals than in bitches without MT. Mammary tumour increased the presence of pain 8.3 times and defecation difficulties 10 times. It can be concluded that even small MTs can elicit pain in dogs, which interferes with their quality of life.

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The ant, Formica japonica, is polyphagous and workers hunt other insects as foods. In this study, interspecific aggression was examined in the workers and queens. Behavior experiments demonstrated that interspecific aggressiveness was significantly higher in workers than queens. Workers showed predatory aggressive behavior towards crickets, on the other hand, queens elicited threat behavior but they didn’t attack crickets. In order to investigate neuronal mechanisms underlying regulation of aggressive motivation, the role of biogenic amine in the brain in evoking aggressive behavior was examined by measuring biogenic amine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ECD). No significant difference in the octopamine (OA) level was found between workers and queens, but the level of N-acetyloctopamine (NacOA) in the brain of queens was significantly higher than that of workers. This study suggests that OAergic system in the brain must involve in controlling aggressive motivation in the ants.

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Abstract  

The phenomenon of the German Wende of 1989 has elicited various responses, both literary and otherwise. Especially illuminating are those of the twoauthors Volker Braun and Hans Magnus Enzensberger, arguably the leading poetsin former East and West Germany, respectively. Braun’s “O Chicago!O Widerspruch!” and Enzensberger’s “Aufbruchsstimmung” concur inthat they voice criticism and serious doubts concerning German reunificationand what it entails, whereas the two writers differ markedly, with one exceptionperhaps, in their commitment to international, indeed global, problems andevents, as witness the remaining three poems. The discussion of these threetexts is supplemented by a brief look at the concomitant prose publicationsof Braun and Enzensberger; also, general questions of intertextuality andthe translatability thereof are discussed, if only in passing.

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This study is aimed at determining the cultural factors (beliefs, traditional religious practices, and customs) blocking the utilization of orthodox medicine among peoples of Nigeria represented in this research by natives of Warri area of Delta State in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. With the use of multi-stage cluster sampling technique 190 natives sampled, participated in this study. A structured interview schedule containing a 13-item question translated in pidgin English (the lingua franca in the region) was used by ten research assistants who hail from the selected communities to elicit information from both literate and illiterate natives. The chi-square statistic result (χ 2 (8) = 26.83, P <.05) shows that some ethnic beliefs, customs and traditions are very significant cultural factors blocking the use of orthodox medicine. It was recommended that governments at all levels should put in place information, education and communication (IEC) activities in order to encourage appropriate choice of medical care amongst Nigerians.

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The authors describe a case of synchronously occurring (double) tumours, i.e. primary hepatocellular carcinoma and aortic body chemodectoma in a 14-year-old mixed-breed male dog. The tumours were identified during necropsy, following euthanasia. In the last months of its life, the dog showed signs of weakness, anorexia, apathy, inactivity, and abdominal palpation elicited a painful reaction. The primary liver cancer emerged in the left lateral lobe without evidence of any distant metastases. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations revealed a well-differentiated, trabecular, claudin-7-, claudin-5- and pancytokeratin-negative hepatocellular carcinoma. The Ki-67 proliferation index was 33%. During necropsy, a synchronously occurring benign, grade I type aortic body chemodectoma was also detected in the dog. This neuroendocrine tumour showed chromogranin-, synaptophysin-, neuron-specific enolase- and S100 protein-positivity, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was 2%. The authors believe that this is the first description of synchronously occurring hepatocellular carcinoma and aortic body chemodectoma in a dog.

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E tanulmány célja a magyar és tunéziai arab gyerekek és tinédzserek elbeszélő szövegekben használt olyan nyelvi formáinak összegyűjtése, amelyek a cselekvés elszenvedőjét helyezik előtérbe. A vizsgált szöveg magyar és tunéziai arab anyanyelvű gyerekek, tinédzserek és felnőttek elbeszéléseiből áll. Az adatrögzítéshez használt anyag a Frog, where are you? (Mayer, 1969) című képeskönyv volt. Eredményeink azt mutatják, hogy a több résztvevős eseményt tartalmazó tagmondatok aránya, valamint az esemény elszenvedőjének előtérbe helyezése a kor előrehaladtával nő mind a két nyelvben. Bár a magyar és a tunéziai arab tipológiai szempontból két teljesen eltérő nyelv, a beszélők ugyanazokhoz a nyelvi formákhoz folyamodnak (szórend változtatása és mediális igék alkalmazása) a passzív igenem szemantikai funkciójának betöltésére.

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Absztrakt

A gátlási mechanizmusok alapvetően fontosak a pszichofiziológiai folyamatok minden szintjén, így a kognitív funkciókat tekintve is. Általánosan elfogadott, hogy ennek hatékonysága csökken az életkorral, nem ismert azonban, hogy érzelmi folyamatok miként befolyásolják ezt az összefüggést. Vizsgálatunkban arra kerestünk választ, hogy található-e kapcsolat a gátlási funkciók, az életkor és az érzelmi folyamatok szabályozása között. Fiatal és idős személyeknek negatív, pozitív vagy semleges valenciájú szavakat mutattunk be, melyekre az instrukció szerint motoros válasszal kellett (GO helyzet), vagy éppen nem volt szabad (NOGO helyzet) reagálniuk. A viselkedéses mutatókon túl a szóingerekkel kiváltott potenciálokat, illetve az azoknak megfelelő EEG-szakaszt elemeztük hagyományos módszerekkel, valamint a nemlineáris-lineáris szinkronizáció kvantifikálására alkalmas szinkronizációs valószínűség számításával a delta és theta frekvenciasávokban. Meghatároztuk e szakasz ún. hálózatjellemzőit is. Megállapítottuk, hogy a GO válaszhelyzet idősekben is hatékonyan provokál szinkronizációs folyamatokat ezekben a frekvenciasávokban, melyek nem elsősorban az ingerek valenciájával hozhatók összefüggésbe. A legnagyobb amplitúdójú N2 komponenst a fiatalokban a negatív érzelmi töltésű inger váltotta ki a NOGO helyzetben. Ez arra utal, hogy a válaszgátlásban fontos folyamatok az averzív ingerekre aktiválódnak legnagyobb mértékben, mely hatás fiatalokban kifejezettebb. A kiváltó ingertől függetlenül magasabb szinkronizációt tapasztaltunk afiatal korcsoportban, mely magyarázható a fiatalokban hatékonyabb interneuronalis kapcsolatokkal.

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