The paper aims at summarising the progress that has been made after World War II in collecting, editing, translating, and analysing the Buddhist contributions to classical Sanskrit literature. It demonstrates that the systematic search for manuscripts has brought to light many unknown works, among them veritable highlights of their respective genres, such as the play Lokānanda by Candragomin, the Jātakamālās by Saṅghasena, Haribhaṭṭa, and Gopadatta, a great number of outstanding hymns by Mātṛceṭa and his successors, and verse epics such as the Kapphiṇābhyudaya by Śivasvāmin, and the two late poems by Sarvarakṣita, namely the Mahāsaṃvartanīkathā and the Maṇicūḍajātaka. It is noteworthy that in many cases the oldest or even only specimens of various genres were composed by Buddhist authors.
interception system) EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT Session document (A5-0264/2001), 11 July 2001.
Hill, Edward (2000): Declaration. Retrieved January 30, 2008, from Epic Government Documents Web site:
Authors:Zsolt Baranyai, Tamás Mersich, Kristóf Dede, István Besznyák, Attila Zaránd, Dániel Teknős, Péter Nagy, Ferenc Salamon, Pál Nagy, Zsolt Nagy, Zsuzsanna Kótai, Marcell Szász, Lilla Lukács, Zoltán Szállási, Valéria Jósa, and Ferenc Jakab
Swedish National Biobank.
In this paper I focus on dualistic creation stories, but without an attempt at an all-European overview. The analysis is confined to Swedish, Hungarian and Russian cultures, and references are made to various genres of literary fiction, folk legends, religious folk epic songs and annals. In the background of these examples the religious ideology of medieval bogomilism can be traced. “The Legend of Småland”, a chapter in Selma Lagerlöf’s children’s novel “The Wonderful Adventures of Nils”, draws on a dualistic cosmogonic myth of apocryphal traditions. This myth represents a modified variant of an etiological, dualistic belief. Satan is replaced by Saint Peter, who is believed to have created the mountains, which are symbolic of chaos, in the plain called Småland. In contrast, the plain was created by God. In the mythological view of the world, the plain is symbolic of the world of order, i.e. cosmos. The motif of soil or sand brought up from the bottom of the sea as well as the cooperation of the Creator and his Demiurge in the creation myth may be part of the ancient heritage in Hungarian mythology, or the motifs of the dualistic creation myth may have been borrowed later in the new homeland from nearby or distant neighbours whose tradition had been deeply affected by bogomilism. In the Russian Primary Chronicle, at the year 1071, an apocryphal story can be read in which magicians (‘volchvy’) present their ideas concerning the creation of man in accordance with the dualistic concept of Bogomils. The human body was created by Satan, from a bunch of straw hurled down from Heaven by God, and it was God who placed the soul in the body. Certain textual variants of “The Book of the Depths” (‘Golubinaja kniga’), a Russian religious folk epic, describe the single combat between Truth (‘Pravda’) and Falsehood (‘Krivda’). This combat can be interpreted, although indirectly, as the Bogomil tenet of the fight between Logos (Jesus) and Satan.
, Devin 1994 Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde (Baba Tukles and the Conversion to Islam in Historical and Epic Tradition). University Park : The Pennsylvania State University Press .
Divaev , Abubakr 1899 Iz oblasti
Krasnowolska , Anna
( 2006 a): A Voice from Heaven. Functions of the Dream in Persian Epic Literature . In: Galewicz , Cezary (ed.): Texts of Power. The Power of the Text. Readings in Textual Authority across History and Cultures . Kraków
A driving force in Vergil’s Aeneid is the hostility of Juno to the Trojans as they approach, and finally arrive in Italy. The epic in some ways mirrors the opposition encountered by Augustus as the new ruler of Rome. Juno’s opposition to the Trojans has its origin not only in Greek mythology, but in the history of the local peoples of Italy with whom early Romans had to contend. From the outset of the poem she becomes the personification of these opposing forces. Once the Trojans finally reach mainland Italy, she sets in motion a long war, although the one depicted in the Aeneid was not as long as the real wars Romans waged with the Latin League and with the many of the tribes of Italy, including the Veii. The reality of the wars Rome had to contend with are here compared to the relatively brief one depicted in the Aeneid, and the pacification of Juno reflects the merging of the different peoples of Rome with their subjugator.
Harms's case "The Blue Notebook No 10", which is a cisfinite miniature about the infinity of human non-existence, is seen by the author as an a-rational (IT = NON/IT) creative inovation: the defictionalisation of the narrative convention of the character, up to the point of cisfinite zero. Particular attention is drawn to the polemical intertextual "collisions" (The OBERIU Declaration) of Harms's reddish-brown man with a canonized pattern of the classic Russian realistic (and socrealistic) characterisation (the 'outer' and the 'inner portrait'; procedures, actions). Simultaneously, the 'demimesis' of the reddish-brown man destroys the traditional mimetic model of character structuralisation of the European romanesque production. Naturally, with a strong emphasis on the realistic model, which has already become an object of destruction - in the dadadistic avant-garde palimpsests (poeme simultane, dadaistic collage and photomontage, ready-made) as in the romanesque fiction of, for example, F. Kaf-ka, J. Joyce, W. Faulkner, J. P. Sartre, A. Camus. As the defictionalisation of the character the universal epic literary convention in "The Blue Notebook No 10" becomes metapoetic DEFICTION/DEMIMESIS of the character as described by Aristotle in his Poetics.
At the beginning of the 19th century, when the poets wanted to create the national epic poem of Hungarians, they followed the Aeneid; at the end of the 18th century, when the agricultural reform was established in Hungary under the Habsburgs, the poets wrote agricultural poems in Vergilian form and translated and modernized his Georgics. The world of Vergil depicted in the Eclogues and in the Georgics became the idealized Arcadia, and poets and writers or the aristocracy — influenced by Vergil — wanted to create their own Arcadia. The pastoral theme and the bucolical forms were very popular in Hungarian literature of this period, at the end of the 18th century. The poets had pastoral names, and very different topics were expressed in eclogues (e.g. actual events of politics). In the first half of the 20th century Vergil had a new renaissance connected to the bimillennium of his birth. And this renaissance reached the most expressive element of the presence of Vergil’s Bucolics in the poetry of Miklós Radnóti (1909–1944), whose eclogues are the most tragic expression of cruelty of war. My paper focuses on the influence of Virgil’s Bucolics in Radnóti’s poetry, but his examples can attest to the deep influence of Vergil on Hungarian literature.