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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Zsolt Marczali, Miklós Nádasy, Ferenc Simon, and Sándor Keszthelyi
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The genus Fusarium consists of multiple diverse species, which, as a result of their frequency in nature and pathogenicity, are significant in agriculture, as well as in human and veterinary medicine. In the course of field trials, by using standard phytopathological methods, and performing analyses of 19 different varieties of wheat and a portion of infected grains gathered from two distinct locations in Slovenia, we have determined the presence of various phytopathogenic species of the genus Fusarium. Because of the reliability, the experiment was performed in two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013. A laboratory analysis was conducted with an ELISA test on all grain samples for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration. The results show that the main differences in the infection levels (F. culmorum + F. graminearum; FC + FG) of wheat samples were found in Jable (humid area), at the same time showing higher levels of DON content than Rakičan (dry area). Such a statement is supported by correlation test, where correlation is evident between FC + FG and DON in every variation. The data for both wheat types (awned and awnless) together showed that the grain in Jable is statistically significant more infected by FC + FG when compared to that in Rakičan. Moreover, our descriptive analysis confirms that the infection rate of grain with FC and FG shows a strong correlation with the emergence of DON.

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Although overlap of communities is a key issue in studies ranging from community ecology to biogeography, a clear definition of community overlap and related terms hinder the development of the field. The absence of a unified terminology is remarkable even when the overlap of a pair or multiple communities is characterized. As a remedy, I suggest a definition of community overlap and two measures of it (number of overlapping species and total overlap size). Although both measures quantify different aspects of community overlap, in studying pairs of communities they yield identical results. The present findings demonstrate the need for a unified terminology in research on community overlap as well as for pairwise and multiple measures for quantifying the phenomenon.

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Abstract  

The main sociological, philosophical and historical approaches only ascribe a relative importance to the role of chance, error, or accident in scientific progress. The literature on this topic tends to be anecdotal, sometimes hagiographic and rarely systematic. The main goal of this paper is to introduce a new approach to the study of serendipity in scientific discovery. This new approach is based in the study of highly cited papers obtained from theCitation Classics feature ofCurrent Contents. This paper re-examines 205Citation Classics commentaries from the 400 most-cited papers in the recent history of science. Authors of 17Citation Classics commentaries (8.3%) mention some kind of serendipity in performing the research reported in the highly cited paper. Commentaries are classified and discussed in detail. In addition, I have examinated the original papers identified above. In 5 from the original highly cited papers authors explained or gave enough hints on the way the serendipitous discovery was done.

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Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) represents a main group of enteric pathogens that cause human diarrhoea. Because it is not simply distinguished from normal flora by simple laboratory methods, modern molecular diagnostic assays are necessary. Although it is neither necessary nor applicable to perform PCR for all patients, it is of many advantages to verify the prevalence of DEC in different areas by this method. Knowing the prevalence of DEC in an area, we can focus on few pathogens and narrow our antimicrobial treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the different DEC categories in children diarrhoea in the west of Iran.The stool specimens of 251 children with diarrhoea were collected from June to September 2007. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to determine the presence of enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), entero-invasive (EIEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and entero-aggregative (EAEC) strains. ETEC strains were isolated from 13 and EAEC strains from 16 children. STEC was detected in 7 children, and no EIEC was isolated. Finally, EPEC strains were isolated in 41 cases. EAEC and EPEC are the most frequent DECs in children less than 10 years of age in West of Iran.

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Field surveys carried out between 1996 and 1997 in Cote d'Ivoire on weed hosts to detect the occurrence and subsistence of rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) in nature show that rice and Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Link) harbour the virus. There was consistent detection of RYMV throughout the sampling period in rice samples mostly from the lowland varieties. It is thus evident that RYMV subsists more on rice in nature. This could serve as a source of inoculum for infection to newly transplanted rice in the field.

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Abstract  

Neutron Well Coincidence Counting has been explored as a non destructive assay technique for determining the percentage of PuO2 in blended mixture of UO2 and PuO2 powders. The method has been applied to MOX blends having PuO2 content varying from 0.4 to 44% for both thermal and fast reactors. The use of Neutron Well Coincidence Counting technique is validated as a process control step for determining PuO2 content in the fabrication of MOX fuel by comparing it with chemical analysis of sintered pellets. It has been used at Advanced Fuel fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur during the manufacture of MOX fuel of various types for thermal and fast reactors.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: László Gulácsi, István Májer, Imre Boncz, Valentin Brodszky, Béla Merkely, Pál Maurovich Horvath, and Krisztián Kárpáti

Magyarországon jelentős az akut myocardialis infarctust szenvedett betegek száma, ezért elengedhetetlen a betegségteher (disease burden) pontosabb megismerése. Célkitűzés: Tanulmányunkban azt vizsgáljuk, hogy mekkora a finanszírozót érintő teher a hospitalizált, szívinfarktust szenvedett betegek esetén, az aktív és a krónikus kórházi ellátásban, valamint a járóbeteg- és az alapellátás területén, illetve felbecsüljük, hogy mekkora a társadalmat érintő indirekt költség. Módszer: Az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár adatbázisa alapján elemeztük az „új” infarktust szenvedett betegek aktív és krónikus kórházi ellátásának költségeit a 25 évnél idősebb populáció körében a 2003. májusi megbetegedést követő 12 és 24 hónapban. A betegeket nemek szerinti, és 25–44, 45–64, 65+ éves alcsoportokba osztottuk. Egyéb költségelemként figyelembe vettük a házi-, szakorvosi vizitek, betegszállítás, valamint a munkából való kiesés átlagköltségeit. Eredmények: Az akut myocardialis infarctus aktív kórházi ellátásának átlagos egészségbiztosítási költsége a megbetegedést követő 12 hónapban a nőknél általában magasabb, mint a férfiaknál: 476,3 ezer Ft vs 391,1 ezer Ft (65+ év); 429,1 Ft vs 389,4 ezer Ft (45–64 év) és 229,5 ezer Ft vs 240,6 ezer Ft (25–44 év). A krónikus ellátás terhe betegenként 15–40 ezer Ft az első évben, és az aktív ellátás költsége is hasonló nagyságrendű (22–54 ezer Ft/fő) az infarktus után 13–24 hónappal. Következtetések: Becslésünk szerint az évente közel 12 ezer hospitalizált infarktust szenvedett beteg direkt egészségügyi költségeire a biztosító 4,4 Mrd Ft-ot költött a betegséget követő első 12 hónapban, 3,6 Mrd Ft-ot aktív és 370 millió Ft-ot a krónikus kórházi ellátásban. Egy AMI elkerülésével 345–565 ezer Ft (kor és nem szerint különbözően) direkt egészségügyi költség takarítható meg az első 12 hónapban. Becslésünk szerint az AMI indirekt költsége a munkaképes korúak körében meghaladja a 840 millió Ft-ot egy évben (177 829 Ft/fő).

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incidence and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction N Engl J Med 362 2155 2165 . 9. J. Schmitt

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Res 71 ( 1 – 2 ), 151 – 159 ( 2000 ) 6. Ahmad M , Battese GE : A probity analysis of the incidence of the cotton leaf curl virus in Punjab

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