Sixty durum wheat genotypes were analysed for protein (gliadin) polymorphism to find out the existing genetic diversity, and to assess its utility for improvement in grain yield along with quality traits. Six different
alleles were found in land races, rust resistance sources and old released varieties, while two in recently released and advance lines. Most of the recently released varieties and advance lines showed γ-45/
alleles, which is the best type for pasta making quality, remaining showed γ-42/
allele, which are not good for pasta making. It is advisable to select for γ-45/
as a bio-chemical marker in the future breeding programmes. The rust resistance sources do not possess γ-45/
alleles, so these lines can be used as donors to introduce disease resistance in the good quality recently released varieties, which are containing γ-45/
alleles. From hierarchical analysis, it was found that landraces, released varieties and rust resistance sources are genetically distinct. The presence of new γ-gliadin patterns are interesting in rust resistance sources and need to be investigated for their role in pasta making as well as overall technological quality of durum wheat.
Some mineral elements in the leaves, peel (periderm) and the tuber(edible portion) of seven cassava cultivars were determined using instrumentalneutron activation analysis (INAA). The cassava specimens were made up ofthree improved cultivars namely, TMS 30572, (Afisiafi), TMS 50395 (Gblomaduade)and TMS 4 (2) 1425 (Abasa fitaa). The others are a locally produced mutantTek bankye and two landraces Ankrah and Akosuatumtum. A total of 10 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Na, Br, Cl, Zn,and K) were identified in all the cultivars studied. The tuber portion contained10 elements while the leaves and the peel contained 8 and 9 elements, respectively.Five of the elements identified (Ca, Na, K, Mg, and Cl) are classified asmajor elements in human nutrition while three (Mn, V, and Zn) are trace elements.The major elements were detected in high concentration in the peel of mostof the cultivars than the edible tuber or leaves. Al was found in very highconcentrations ranging from 643.6 to 12610.0 mg/kg in the peel except in Akosuatumtum where its concentration was below 100 mg/kg. The concentrationof Ca and Mg meets the recommendations made by Subcommittee on RecommendedDietary Allowance (RDA). The presence of five major and three trace elementsin the tuber indicates that cassava has a rich mineral source which makesit safe for human consumption.
Authors:Hanna Szymańska, Krystyna Życzko, and Tadeusz Zabolewicz
The relationship between PcR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in RNASE1 (296 A/G), ANG (149 G/T) and RNASE6 (389 C/T) genes and the values of haematological and biochemical blood indices was analysed in crossbred suckling piglets (n = 473), aged 21 ± 3 days (younger, n = 274) and 35 ± 3 days (older, n = 199), descending from Polish Large White × Polish Landrace sows and Duroc × Pietrain boars. The observed distribution of all genotypes was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Anaemia was more common in younger piglets with RNASE1 GA genotype but in the blood of older GA piglets a higher count and percentage of granulocytes were noted. This could be related to the destruction of erythrocytes in younger piglets and enhanced host defence in older ones. ANG gene polymorphism was associated with the severity of iron deficiency in younger piglets. This is supposed to be linked with the different ability to protect immune cells against suppression and degradation during iron deficiency. in older piglets, this mutation differentiated the reactivity of the immune system. Varying levels of iron status and red blood cell indices in RNASE6 genotypes presumably resulted from the coupling of genes involved in iron metabolism and expressed in an age-dependent manner.
Authors:Bartosz Kempisty, Agnieszka Ziółkowska, Hanna Piotrowska, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Piotr Zawierucha, Jędrzej Jaśkowski, Klaus-Peter Brüssow, Michał Nowicki, and Maciej Zabel
It is recognised that connexin 43 (Cx43) and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) are involved in the cumulus cell-oocyte communication via gap junctions and the control of cell cycle progress. However, little is known about their mRNA expression pattern and encoded proteins distribution in porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from 31 puberal crossbred Landrace gilts and analysed for their Cdk4 and Cx43 mRNA expression using RQ-PCR and for the respective protein expression by confocal microscopic observations. An increased Cdk4 and Cx43 mRNA expression was found in oocytes after IVM (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Confocal microscopic observations revealed a significant increase of Cdk4 protein expression in the cytoplasm of oocytes during the maturation process. The localisation of Cx43 changed from zona pellucida before to cytoplasm of oocytes after IVM. It is supposed that the increased expression of Cdk4 and Cx43 mRNA in oocytes after IVM is linked with the accumulation of a large amount of templates during the process of oocyte maturation. The translocation especially of Cx43 from the zona pellucida into the cytoplasm may be associated with a decrease in gap junction activity in fully grown porcine oocytes. Both Cdk4 and Cx43 can be used as ‘checkpoints’ of oocyte maturation.
Authors:Irma Tari, D. Camen, Giancarla Coradini, Jolán Csiszár, Erika Fediuc, Katalin Gémes, A. Lazar, E. Madosa, Sorina Mihacea, P. Poor, Simona Postelnicu, Mihaela Staicu, Ágnes Szepesi, G. Nedelea, and L. Erdei
Drought resistance of bean landraces was compared in order to select genotypes with either high morphological or high biochemical-physiological plasticity. The lines in the former group exhibited fast reduction in fresh and dry mass, decreased the water potential in primary leaves after irrigation withdrawal and the biomass mobilized from the senescent primary leaves was allocated into the roots. These genotypes had high frequency of primary leaf abscission under water stress. The genotypes with plasticity at the biochemical level maintained high water potential and photochemical efficiency, i.e. effective quantum yield, high photochemical (qP) and low non-hotochemical (NPQ) quenching in primary leaves under drought stress. While superoxide dismutase activity was not influenced by the drought and the genotype, catalase activity increased significantly in the primary leaves of the genotypes with efficient biochemical adaptation. Lines with high morphological plasticity exhibited higher quaiacol peroxidase activity under drought. Proline may accumulate in both cases, thus it may be a symptom of protein degradation or a successful osmotic adaptation. On the basis of contrasting responses, the genetic material cannot be screened for a large-scale breeding program by a single physiological parameter but by a set of the methods presented in this work.
Authors:Andreas Schuster, Amedeo Chiribiri, Masaki Ishida, Geraint Morton, Matthias Paul, Shazia T. Hussain, Boris Bigalke, Divaka Perera, Tobias Schaeffter, and Eike Nagel
An isolated perfused pig heart model has recently been proposed for the development of novel methods in standard clinical magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. The original set-up required the electrical system to be within the safe part of the MR-room, which introduced significant background noise. The purpose of the current work was to refine the system to overcome this limitation so that all electrical parts are completely outside the scanner room.
Four pig hearts were explanted under terminal anaesthesia from large white cross landrace pigs. All hearts underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scanning in the MR part of a novel combined 3T MR and x-ray fluoroscopy (XMR) suite. CMR scanning included real-time k-t SENSE functional imaging, k-t SENSE accelerated perfusion imaging and late gadolinium enhancement imaging. Interference with image quality was assessed by spurious echo imaging and compared to noise levels acquired while operating the electrical parts within the scanner room.
Imaging was performed successfully in all hearts. The system proved suitable for isolated heart perfusion in a novel 3T XMR suite. No significant additional noise was introduced into the scanner room by our set-up.
We have substantially improved a previous version of an isolated perfused pig heart model and made it applicable for MR imaging in a state of the art clinical 3T XMR imaging suite. The use of this system should aid novel CMR sequence development and translation into clinical practice.
FAO, 2005: FAOSTAT data,
Last updated February 2005
Kőszegi, Kovács (2004): Investigations on the plant structure characteristics of emmer landraces under inhomogeneous conditions, Acta
Authors:Tihomira Gojmerac, Marija Uremović, Z. Uremović, S. Ćurić, and Nina Bilandžić
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of subacute treatment with a low dose of atrazine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl), an s-triazine herbicide, on endocrine oestrus regulation in gilts. A group of nine gilts (F1generation of Swedish Landrace Ã Large Yorkshire) were treated with 1 mg atrazine/kg body mass daily, mixed to the feed for 19 days before the onset of expected oestrus. Blood samples were obtained by cranial vena cava puncture three times daily at 3-h intervals on five post-treatment days, i.e. before and during oestrus. The serum concentration of oestradiol-17β (E2) was determined by the fluoroimmunochemical method. On Day -2 before the onset of expected oestrus, a significantly lower (P < 0.001) E2concentration was measured in the serum of treated gilts (31.25 ± 1.95 and 39.32 ± 1.38 pg/mL) than in the control pigs (51.43 ± 1.29 and 68.59 ± 2.99 pg/mL). In contrast, the E2concentration measured in the serum of treated animals was significantly higher (P < 0.001) on the day of the expected onset of oestrus and on the subsequent two days (35.43 ± 1.85, 53.92 ± 1.98 and 60.32 ± 2.35 pg/mL, respectively) than in the control animals (13.52 ± 1.79, 21.53 ± 1.35 and 20.05 ± 1.46 pg/mL, respectively). Insufficient serum E2concentration of the treated gilts resulted in a failure of expected oestrus, as indicated also by the state of dioestrus demonstrated by histopathological examination of the uterus.
Authors:Hongxiang M, Jinbao Yao, Miaoping Zhou, Xu Zhang, Lijuan Ren, Giuhong Yu, and Weizhong Lu
Wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB) may cause serious losses in grain yield and quality in China. More than 7 million hectares which approximately accounts for 25% of the total areas in China is infected by the disease. The cultivation of wheat varieties with resistance to Fusarium head blight is recognized as one of the most important components to diminish losses due to this disease. Chinese wheat breeders have commenced the research on FHB since 1950s. Wheat cultivars with improved FHB resistance were developed through conventional breeding. Some famous resistant varieties such as Sumai 3, Yangmai 158 and Ning 7840 were released from Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, these varieties were widely applied in wheat production and breeding programs. Significant achievements concerning molecular mapping and marker assisted selection have been made in the past decade. The major QTL on chromosome 3BS was identified and located in the same region on chromosome 3BS in Sumai 3, Ning 894037, Wangshuibai, and Chinese Spring. Using SSR marker in this QTL region for assisted selection, some lines with the same resistance to FHB were obtained. New STS markers and SSCP markers were developed and will be tested for the efficiency of MAS. However, further achievements are still hindered by a number of constraints. More FHB resistance genetic resources from landrace in middle to lower reaches of Yangtze River are necessary to be used for improving FHB resistant. The genetic mechanism of the varieties contributing the resistance to improved cultivars is needed to be understood. Development of functional markers for FHB is discussed.