Authors:A. Nyéki, G. Milics, A.J. Kovács, and M. Neményi
This paper reviews the works related to the effect of soil compaction on cereal yield and focuses on research of field experiments. The reasons for compaction formation are usually a combination of several types of interactions. Therefore one of the most researched topics all over the world is the changes in the soil’s physical and chemical properties to achieve sustainable cereal production conditions. Whether we are talking about soil bulk density, physical soil properties, water conductivity or electrical conductivity, or based on the results of measurements of on-line or point of soil sampling resistance testing, the fact is more and more information is at our disposal to find answers to the challenges.
Thanks to precision plant production technologies (PA) these challenges can be overcome in a much more efficient way than earlier as instruments are available (geospatial technologies such as GIS, remote sensing, GPS with integrated sensors and steering systems; plant physiological models, such Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), which includes models for cereals etc.). The tests were carried out first of all on alteration clay and sand content in loam, sandy loam and silt loam soils. In the study we examined especially the change in natural soil compaction conditions and its effect on cereal yields.
Both the literature and our own investigations have shown that the soil moisture content changes have the opposite effect in natural compaction in clay and sand content related to cereal yield. These skills would contribute to the spreading of environmental, sustainable fertilizing devoid of nitrate leaching planning and cereal yield prediction within the framework of the PA to eliminate seasonal effects.
Authors:P. Bukovics, Zs. Orosz-Kovács, L. Gy. Szabó, Á. Farkas, and T. Bubán
The sugar composition of floral nectar was studied in 17 sour cherry cultivars in Újfehértó in 1997-2000. All samples contained the three most frequent sugar components: glucose, fructose and sucrose, similarly to our previous data. The ranking of the floral nectar in sour cherry cultivars based on sucrose content was the following: 'Újfehértói fürtös' and 'Pándy 48' reached the threshold value of bee visitation in at least three seasons, and a significant amount of sucrose was detected in the flowers of 'Érdi jubileum AB' and 'Érdi bőtermő' as well. The above cultivars proved to be the most valuable in Újfehértó from the viewpoint of apiculture. According to the ranking based on fructose content, which considers human sensation of taste, the most favourable cultivars were 'Újfehértói fürtös', 'Meteor USA' and 'Korai pipacs'. Based on total sugar content the secretory products preferred by bees were those of 'Újfehértói fürtös' (in three seasons); 'Korai pipacs', 'Érdi nagygyümölcsű', 'Sárándi S/Gy', 'Debreceni bőtermő', 'Kántorjánosi 3', 'Montmorency' and 'Meteor USA' (in two seasons). The ratio of nectar sugars, based on the Baker-quotient, S/(G+F), was sucrose-dominant at least in one season in 'Érdi jubileum AB', 'Érdi nagygyümölcsű' and 'Pándy 48'; hexose-rich in 'Korai pipacs', 'Kántorjánosi 3' and 'Montmorency'; all other cultivars had a sucrose-rich nectar. The nectar of all studied sour cherry cultivars possessed a composition preferred by bees. The basis of bees' nectar preference is the ratio, quantity and concentration of nectar sugar components, which were influenced by the effects of season to a high degree, differing from data in literature. From the viewpoint of nectar composition and concentration the most favourable temperature was around 20 °C.
Authors:G. Bonanomi, G. Incerti, A. Stinca, F. Cartenì, F. Giannino, and S. Mazzoleni
Ring shaped patches of clonal plants fascinated plant ecologists since long time. In this work we review the reports on the occurrence of ring pattern in different environmental conditions, the growth forms of ring-forming plants, the mechanisms underlying ring formation, and the consequences for species diversity at community scale. Rings formed by 83 species of clonal vascular plants have been found in grasslands, deserts, bare substrates of lava flow, harvested peat lands, salt marshes, and sand dunes. Four causal hypotheses have been proposed for the emergence of ring patterns: i. occurrence of architectural constraints for ramets development; ii. induction by fire, drought, trampling or overgrazing; iii. nutrient and water depletion by competition inside the ring; and iv. onset of species-specific negative plant-soil feedback in the inner zone of the clone. Since almost all the available studies are observations of ring structure or modelling exercises, none of the putative mechanisms for ring formation emerged from the literature as either generally applicable or suitable for rejection. Therefore, long-term field experiments are needed to investigate the relative prevalence of different mechanisms in different environments. Ring formation bears important consequences at community scale, because ring forming plants often act as “nurses”, enhancing the recruitment and development of different plant species. In fact, ring establishment modifies above- and below-ground environmental conditions, providing specialized safe sites for beneficiaries in the inner zone of the clones. Such interspecific facilitation by ring forming plants, particularly in chronically stressed environments, contributes to increase plant species richness and can locally promote the successional dynamics.
Literature Bozai , J. ( 1974 ): Újabb adatok Magyarország Tetranychoidea faunájához (Acari). (Neue Angaben zur Kenntnis der Tetranychoiden-Fauna Ungarns (Acari) .) Folia Entomol. Hung. , 27 , 5 – 7 . Canestrini , G. and Fanzago , F
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, E. Farkas, S.-H. Jang, D. Liu, J. Halda, P.-E. Persson, M. Hansson, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, and J.-S. Hur
Three new genera Coppinsidea, Vandenboomia and Wolseleyidea are described and the genera Ivanpisutia, Lecaniella and Myrionora are resurrected on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of multi-locus sequence data of the Ramalinaceae including the nuclear protein-coding marker rpb2, the internal transcribed spacer and a fragment of the small mitochondrial subunit. The genus Hertelidea was positioned within the Ramalina clade of the phylogenetic tree of the Ramalinaceae. Bacidia sipmanii, Phyllopsora chlorophaea, P. castaneocincta and Ramalina subbreviuscula were recorded from South Korea for the first time here confirming by molecular data, too.
Forty-eight new combinations are proposed: Bacidia alnetorum (basionym: Biatora alnetorum S. Ekman et Tønsberg), Biatora amazonica (basionym: Phyllopsora amazonica Kistenich et Timdal), Biatora cuyabensis (basionym: Lecidea cuyabensis Malme), Biatora halei (basionym: Pannaria halei Tuck.), Biatora kalbii (basionym: Phyllopsora kalbii Brako), Biatora subhispidula (basionym: Psoroma subhispidulum Nyl.), Coppinsidea alba (basionym: Catillaria alba Coppins et Vězda), Coppinsidea aphana (basionym: Lecidea aphana Nyl.), Coppinsidea croatica (basionym: Catillaria croatica Zahlbr.), Coppinsidea fuscoviridis (basionym: Bilimbia fuscoviridis Anzi), Coppinsidea pallens (basionym: Bilimbia pallens Kullh.), Coppinsidea ropalosporoides (basionym: Gyalidea ropalosporoides S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Coppinsidea scotinodes (basionym: Lecidea scotinodes Nyl.), Coppinsidea sphaerella (basionym: Lecidea sphaerella Hedl.), Ivanpisutia hypophaea (basionym: Biatora hypophaea Printzen et Tønsberg), Ivanpisutia ocelliformis (basionym: Lecidea ocelliformis Nyl.), Lecaniella belgica (basionym: Lecania belgica van den Boom et Reese Naesb.), Lecaniella cyrtellina (basionym: Lecanora cyrtellina Nyl.), Lecaniella dubitans (basionym: Lecidea dubitans Nyl.), Lecaniella erysibe (basionym: Lichen erysibe Ach.), Lecaniella hutchinsiae (basionym: Lecanora hutchinsiae Nyl.), Lecaniella naegelii (basionym: Biatora naegelii Hepp), Lecaniella prasinoides (basionym: Lecania prasinoides Elenkin), Lecaniella sylvestris (basionym: Biatora sylvestris Arnold), Lecaniella tenera (basionym: Scoliciosporum tenerum Lönnr.), Mycobilimbia albohyalina (basionym: Lecidea anomala f. albohyalina Nyl.), Mycobilimbia cinchonarum (basionym: Triclinum cinchonarum Fée), Mycobilimbia concinna (basionym: Phyllopsora concinna Kistenich et Timdal), Mycobilimbia ramea (basionym: Bacidina ramea S. Ekman), Mycobilimbia siamensis (basionym: Phyllopsora siamensis Kistenich et Timdal), Myrionora australis (basionym: Biatora australis Rodr. Flakus et Printzen), Myrionora ementiens (basionym: Lecidea ementiens Nyl.), Myrionora flavopunctata (basionym: Lecanora flavopunctata Tønsberg), Myrionora globulosa (basionym: Lecidea globulosa Flörke), Myrionora hemipolia (basionym: Lecidea arceutina f. hemipolia Nyl.), Myrionora lignimollis (basionym: Biatora ligni-mollis T. Sprib. et Printzen), Myrionora malcolmii (basionym: Phyllopsora malcolmii Vězda et Kalb), Myrionora vacciniicola (basionym: Lecidea vacciniicola Tønsberg), Phyllopsora agonimioides (basionym: Coenogonium agonimioides J. P. Halda, S.-O. Oh et J.-S. Hur), Phyllopsora sunchonensis (basionym: Agonimia sunchonensis S. Y. Kondr. et J.-S. Hur), Vandenboomia chlorotiza (basionym: Lecidea chlorotiza Nyl.), Vandenboomia falcata (basionym: Lecania falcata van den Boom, M. Brand, Coppins, Magain et Sérus.), Wolseleyidea africana (basionym: Phyllopsora africana Timdal et Krog), Wolseleyidea byssiseda (basionym: Lecidea byssiseda Nyl. ex Hue), Wolseleyidea canoumbrina (basionym: Lecidea canoumbrina Vain.), Wolseleyidea furfurella (basionym: Phyllopsora furfurella Kistenich et Timdal), Wolseleyidea ochroxantha (basionym: Lecidea ochroxantha Nyl.), and Wolseleyidea swinscowii (basionym: Phyllopsora swinscowii Timdal et Krog). The combination Biatora longispora (Degel.) Lendemer et Printzen is validated here. The new names Biatora vezdana for Lecania furfuracea Vĕzda and Coppinsidea vainioana for Lecidea sphaeroidiza Vain. are proposed. The phenomenon of presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in lichen association, i.e. DNA, belonging neither to mycobiont nor photobiont or to endophytic fungi is for the first time illustrated. So the presence of nrITS and mtSSU sequences of crustose lichen Coppinsidea ropalosporoides in thalli of crustose Verrucaria margacea and foliose Kashiwadia orientalis, as well as nrITS of Phyllopsora sp. KoLRI in Agonimia pacifica and Biatora longispora, or nrITS and mtSSU of Biatora longispora in thalli of Agonimia pacifica, Oxneriopsis oxneri and Pyxine limbulata, Ivanpisutia oxneri in thalli of Rinodina xanthophaea, etc. is documented. Scarce cases of presence of ‘extraneous mycobiont DNA’ in representatives of the Teloschistaceae, Physciaceae known from literature data are discussed, too.
Kürschner, H. and Erdağ, A. (2005): Bryophytes of Turkey: An annotated reference list of the species with synonyms from the Recent literature and an annotated list of Turkish Bryological Literature. —
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