“Red Apple” is an Armenian marriage tradition. In Armenia newlywed couples used to make love for the first time on the night after the wedding. The woman is expected to have her first sexual experience at that time only. Following the First Night, proof of the bride’s virginity was given in the form of a blood spot on the bed-sheet.If the bride is a virgin, the main ceremony of the “Red Apple” is performed. Several married women — relatives of the man — prepare a tray of red apples and take it to the home of the bride’s parents. This visit is to show appreciation and praise for the bride’s parents.If the bride is not a virgin, she is judged strictly. She might be publicly shamed and divorced.Up to now this tradition has been generally observed. However, contemporary social changes are influencing the “Red Apple” tradition as well. Various transformations can be seen both in the tradition’s interpretation and in the way it is observed.This article is based on field research. It consists of two parts. In the first part the contemporary interpretations of the requirement of a woman’s virginity are presented. In the second part an attempt is made to outline the main levels of the observance and transformation of the tradition.
In Hungary the codification of the civil law is just now progressing; the National Assembly is currently debating the Proposition for the new Civil Code replacing the Code of 1959. The Bill also affects the Hungarian notariat, which proudly looks back to a past of 700 years, and is conferring several new powers on the organisation.In the medieval Hungary the activities requiring public authenticity were performed by two types of institutions, the locus authenticus operated by the Church and the secular civil law notary. The loci authentici were succeeded by the Latin type of notariat in 1875. Following the 1948 Communist takeover, the Latin type of notariat fell victim to the transformation of the justice system after the Soviet model. It was not until after 1991 that the private type of notariat in harmony with the Hungarian traditions could resume its operation in the end.At present two main groups of cases fall within the competence of the civil law notaries: conducting certain non-litigious proceedings, and preparing notarial deeds. The new Civil Code would refer several new non-litigious proceedings to the competence of the civil law notaries, for example keeping the register of the matrimonial and conjugal property contracts, conducting divorce upon the agreed request of the parties, as well as the dissolution of common law marriage upon the agreed request of the parties. In conclusion the codification enlarges the sphere of tasks of the notariat in the territory of non-litigious proceedings, thus wishing to strengthen the Hungarian Notariat’s official character.
This paper deals with the structural analysis of the system of kinship and affinity terms in Middle Mongolian based on all known lexicographical and narrative sources. The system of kinship and affinity terms is seen as a separate lexical group which is to be studied by methods of structural semantics, in particular by the method of componential analysis. This method is for the first time applied to the study of Middle Mongolian vocabulary. The meaning of each kinship or affinity term is defined in the meta-language of componential analysis in its two varieties, main structural features of the system are discovered and defined, the dialectal distribution, inter- and intradialectal lexical differences among the terms are described and presented in the form of tables. The morphological classification of the terms is given, the question of the polysemy of some of them is touched upon. The author comes to the conclusion that East Middle Mongolian dialects and their system of kinship and affinity terms could be in a more archaic stage of development than the language of West Middle Mongolian literary monuments. The results of the semantic analysis are compared with some historical and ethnographical data on the Mongolian social structure of the imperial period (in particular on kinship system and marriage rules).
Development and Marriage Timing during a Period of Rising Inequality.
, 34: 311–330. In Bukodi E. (2000): Ki, mikor és kivel házasodik? A házasság helye az egyéni életútban és a történeti időben. (Elméletek és megközelítések). [Who marries whom