This article presents a concept on legal character called The Eternity Clause i.e. a legal standard declaring some principles, values or specific constitutional provisions to be unalterable and irrevocable. The Eternity Clause is viewed as a substantive legal instrument, which enables society to preserve its values for eternity. Its purpose is to surpass simple appeal and limit practical ‘power’; to maintain the desired values; to maintain the political system and maybe even remove the mask of legality from violent revolution.
The majority of the modern constitutions contain some form of Eternity Clause. However, the purpose of this paper is to show that the clause can be viewed in another way. It concerns a practical instrument, which should be also heard in political and constitutional law debate especially during constitutional-law making process.
A bis-2-(butoxyethyl ether) (DBC) solvent extraction method has been developed for the radiochemical separation of110mAg,210Pb,127Te and131I in varying concentrations of aqueous HNO3. Various factors were examined to determine the optimum conditions of extraction. The effect of various masking agents has been studied. The extraction of131I is enhanced to 99% at 2.4M HNO3 in the presence of KSCN.131I was stripped into aqueous sodium hydroxide from the oxygenated organic extractant. The method was then applied for the recovery of131I from neutron irradiated tellurium metal. The mechanism and reactivity of DBC with metal ions is described.
Authors:Masaki Uesugi, Masayasu Noguchi, Akihiko Yokoyama, and Takashi Nakanishi
An improved method is proposed to determine the content of 210Pb in lead using 210Po measured by alpha-ray spectrometry. This improved method, which is based on radiochemical separation by DDTC–toluene extraction,
employs EDTA and citrate as masking reagents for the lead ions. To selectively extract polonium from an alkaline solution,
the pH dependency was examined using a liquid scintillation counting method. And pH 9 was chosen as an extraction condition.
Then 210Po was electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk, and the chemical recovery was followed by 209Po tracer. The effectiveness of the new method was validated by the agreement with the analytical results from five samples
as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry.
The separation of fluoride by extraction with toluene solution of triphenyltin chloride has been studied. Quantitative isolation of fluoride from solutions with a wide acidity range (pH 4.0–11.5) has been established. It is suggested that interferences by Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al can be avoided by masking these elements using sulfate and hydroxyde ions. Interference by phosphate ions can be overcome in a similar fashion. The halogenated species can be masked by mercury nitrate. Detection limit for fluorine determination is about 3 g for a neutron generator flux of 2·1111 n·cm–1·s–1. A method for fluorine assay in water using a neutron generator with a detection limit of 1 ppm has been developed.
Authors:M. Ahmed, S. Ahmed, M. Saeed, and M. Iqbal
Extraction of Pr(III), Ho(III) and Er(III) has been studied in the pH range of 1–10 with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) in benzene. The separation was found to be quantitative in borate media from pH 7 to 10, at an ionic strength of 0.1M (H+, BO33–). The stoichiometric composition of the complexes under the optimal conditions of shaking time, pH and reagent concentration was formulated using slope analysis and found to be M(BPHA)3, where M=Pr(III), Ho(III) and Er(III). The effect of various masking agents shows that citrate, ascorbate, EDTA, oxalate, fluoride and phosphate form stable complexes with these rare earths as compared to BPHA. The decontamination factors for different cations with respect to these rare earths under the optimum conditions have been evaluated.
There was a confusion around the Q0- and k0-values for the reaction 130Ba(n,γ)131Ba. The problem was clarified in this work by re-determination of the k0-values and critical evaluation of the Q0-values. The new 131Ba k0-values were found to be about 16% lower than the recommended ones compiled in 1989 and about 10% lower than those recommended
in 2003. The Q0-value was verified to be 24.3. These new values were successfully applied in k0-INAA of Ba in various references samples. Possible error sources in Ba determination were investigated which might compensate
the negative bias in Ba results from using the inaccurate k0-values, consequently masking the problem of these old k0-factors so far. In this context, a few cases were studied and presented.
In his famous "Statement" in 1955 Philip Larkin said: "I feel that my prime responsibility is to the experience itself." His
first mature collection of poems (which can be read as an organic whole) is a demonstration of this credo, but also a manifestation
of his sceptical attitude. In most poems of The Less Deceived he made efforts to preserve experience, but also had to admit at least a partial failure. The first and the last poems ("Lines
on a Young Lady's Photograph Album" and "At Grass") form a frame: in both texts Larkin realizes that knowing the past of other
individuals is impossible for him, therefore his experience is incomplete: it is an experience about not having an experience.
Although Larkin was a central figure of the Movement, and as such, denied any kind of literary inspiration, still intertextuality enriched these poems. Some of the poems can
be read as responses to other poems ("Lines on a Young Lady's Photograph Album", "Wedding Wind"), and some texts as parodies
("I Remember, I Remember", "Church Going"). In my analyses I distinguish between the real poet, the implied poet and the speaker
in the poem. The speakers in most cases cannot be identified with Larkin, but through the masks he wears and the characters
he constructs he represents questions about his own life strategies. The whole volume can be read as the work of a conventional
poet who still responds to the questions of the postmodern age.
Authors:Katalin Jánosi, László Stipkovits, Róbert Glávits, Tamás Molnár, László Makrai, Miklós Gyuranecz, János Varga, and László Fodor
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an aerosol infection method with
that closely resembles the natural way of infection of calves. Another aim was to compare the virulence of two
strains by collecting clinical and postmortem data of experimentally infected and control animals. Seventeen conventionally reared 3-month-old calves were divided into three groups. Two groups of six animals each were exposed to suspensions containing
on three consecutive days using a vaporiser mask. The third group of five animals was used as control. The data of individual clinical examination were recorded daily. All animals were exterminated, and gross pathology of all lungs was evaluated on the 15th day after the first infection. Both
strains caused an increase of rectal temperature, respiratory signs, decrease of weight gain, and severe catarrhal bronchopneumonia in both infected groups. Although some chronic lesions were detected in the lungs of the control animals as well, the histopathological findings in the infected and control groups were different.
was recultured from all lungs in the challenged groups but it could not be reisolated or detected by PCR examination in the control group. This is the first paper on aerosol challenge of calves with
using repeated infection and verified by detailed pathological, bacteriological and histopathological examination. The infection method proved to be successful. There was no difference in the virulence of the two
strains used in the trial.