vegetation studies in permanet plots: a determinant feature of monitoring. ISAFA, Comunicazioni di Ricerca 2001/02: 101-111 (in Italian, with English abstract).
Structure and spatial scale in woodland vegetation studies in permanet
Authors:É. Ács, N. M. Reskóné, K. Szabó, Gy. Taba, and K. T. Kiss
Hambrook Berkman, J. A. and Porter, S. D. (2004): An overview of algal monitoring and research in the US Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. - Diatom 20 : 13-22.
An overview of algal monitoring
lie in the availability of information about inventions of high novelty, but rather in the assessment thereof, as companies are confronted with the problem of information overflow (Bergmann et al. 2008 ). Information overflow causes the monitoring of
The statistical analysis of salinity data from
samples collected yearly from genetic soil horizons of 69 points of the
Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System between 1992 and 2000 showed
changes in time. There is a strong atmospheric control over the groundwater
level and the resulting soil salinity. Weak statistical association was
established between either the pattern of yearly soil salinity changes in the
second (10-20 cm) and third (30-40 cm) genetic horizon and the groundwater
observation stations or the soil types. In the area of Kecskemét there was a
tendency of decreasing soil salinity patterns, while around Békéscsaba a
tendency of increasing soil salinity patterns, as illustrated by the
correspondence biplot. Regarding soil types, the solonetzic meadow soil showed
a tendency of increasing salinity. It was concluded that the statistical
analyses of the monitored data must be carefully planned in order to provide
the optimal background data as independent data from all those available to
accompany the monitored soil data as dependent variable.
Gentilini , F. , Turba , M. E. and Forni , M. ( 2013 ): Retrospective monitoring of minimal residual disease using hairpin-shaped clone specific primers in B-cell lymphoma affected dogs . Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 153 , 279 – 288
Authors:M. Vladár, D. Nikodemová, I. Gomola, M. Vičanová, and M. Fojtík
Conclusions from monitoring of two main natural sources of human exposure in Slovak Republic are presented: the outdoor photon dose equivalent rateHx and indoor radon volume activity. Dose equivalent rates were determinated by on-line monitoring network IRIS, and off-line territorial TLD network as well. Radon volume activity was determinated by solid state track detectors CR-39. The annual effective dose from external exposure, determinated by IRIS network, is equal to 816 mSv · y–1. Lower value, 618 mSv · y–1 had been found from TLD network data. The effective dose caused by inhalation of radon and its progeny lays within the range 1.7 to 5.0 mSv · y–1. Such broad range is caused mainly by uncertainties in calculation procedures of radon effective doses.
Authors:Kate Poiesz, Carol Grundner, and Nancy Redman-Furey
Characterization of the solid-state form (hydrate
or polymorph) of a pharmaceutical active is a key scientific and regulatory
requirement during development of and prior to seeking approval for marketing
of the drug product. A variety of analytical methods are available to perform
this task. By nature of the fundamental information it provides, TG-DTA offers
advantages over other methods in regards to monitoring and quantitation of
hydration state changes. In a single experiment with only a few milligrams
of sample, TG-DTA perceives minor changes in phase, quantitates total water
content and percent conversion, and illustrates hydrate type. All of this
is accomplished without the necessity of generating time-consuming standard
curves representing the differing ratios of hydrated to anhydrous forms. This
study describes the use of TG-DTA to monitor and quantitate humidity induced
solid–solid phase conversion of nitrofurantoin and risedronate. Percent
conversion was qualitatively observed by both TG and DTA signals and quantitated
by the TG.
Authors:H. Miley, T. Bowyer, L. Greenwood, and R. Arthur
The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is currently under construction.
The IMS is intended for monitoring of nuclear explosions. The radionuclide part of the IMS monitors the atmosphere for short-lived
radioisotopes indicative of a nuclear weapon test, and includes field collection and measurement stations, as well as laboratories
to provide reanalysis of the most important samples and a quality control function. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
in Richland, Washington hosts the United States IMS laboratory, with the designation “RL16.” Since acute reactor containment
failures and chronic reactor leakage may also produce similar isotopes, it is tempting to compute ratios of detected isotopes
to determine the relevance of an event to the treaty or agreement in question. In this paper we will note several shortcomings
of simple isotopic ratios: (1) fractionation of different chemical species, (2) difficulty in comparing isotopes within a
single element, and (3) the effect of unknown decay times. While these shortcomings will be shown in the light of an aerosol
sample, several of the problems extend to xenon isotopic ratios. Due to the difficulties listed above, considerable human
expertise will be required to convert a simple mathematical isotope ratio into a criterion which will reliably categorize
an event as ‘reactor’ or ‘weapon’.