Authors:A. Fave, M. Bouchaour, A. Kaminski, S. Begrger, A. Ould-Abbas, and N. Chabane Sari
The fabrication of solar cells based on the transfer of a thin silicon film on a foreign substrate is an attractive way to
realise cheap and efficient photovoltaic devices. The aim of this work is to realise a
thin mono-crystalline silicon film on a double porous silicon layer in order to detach and transfer it on mullite. The first
step is the fabrication of a double porous silicon layer by electrochemical
anodisation using two different current densities. The low current leads to a low porosity layer and during annealing, the
recrystallisation of this layer allows epitaxial growth. The second current leads
to a high porosity which permits the transfer on to a low cost substrate. Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) performed with indium
(or In+Ga) in the temperature range of 950–1050C leads to almost homogeneous
layers. Growth rate is about 0.35 μm min−1. Crystallinity of the grown epilayer is similar on porous silicon and on single crystal silicon. In this paper, we focus
on the realisation of porous silicon
sacrificial layer and subsequent LPE growth.
Raw and thermally treated sepiolites from the Mantoudi area, Euboea, Greece, were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction
(XRD) in combination with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), as well as Fourier
transform (FTIR) spectroscopy, in order to study the collapse of the sepiolite structure with increasing temperature. The
main mineral constituent (>95%) is a well crystallized sepiolite. Quartz and dolomite occur in minor amounts. Calcination
of the samples was carried out up to 350, 720 and 820°C, for 2 h, and ‘sepiolite dihydrite’, ‘sepiolite anhydrite’ and ‘enstatite’
were formed, respectively, as magnesium co-ordinated water and octahedrically co-ordinated hydroxyl groups, are removed and
the dehydroxylated phase recrystallize to enstatite (MgSiO3). These structural and textural changes play an important role to the properties and uses of the studied sepiolites.
Authors:A. Zahia, F. Salhi, A. Pineau, and G. Moya
The results of isothermal calorimetric determination of the stored energy for 99.999% pure polycrystalline rolled silver are reported. The stored energy values were found to be linearly related to the recrystallization temperature. An explanation of this effect is given in terms of the specific heat difference between the rolled and annealed states.
Authors:H. Enginar, P. Ünak, F. Yurt, and F. Zümrüt Biber
An oestrogen derivative 3,17-a-oestradiolyl propyl 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanyl-1-(4-methylbenzoic acid)ester (ESTCPTA) that is 3,17-a-oestradiolyl propinol coupled to 1-(4-methylbenzoic acid)1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (CPTA) was synthesized in five steps. The product was purified by recrystallization in ethyl alcohol, and analysed by NMR and IR spectroscopy. ESTCPTA was labeled with 99mTc and radio thin layer chromatography (RTLC) and radio-paper electrophoresis were used to determine the radiochemical yields. Specific activity was approximately 23.7 GBq/mmol and the labeling yield was over 95%. The biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. The rats were sacricified by ether narcotization at certain time intervals and the activity of the organs was counted by a gamma counter. The activity per gram tissue was calculated and time activity curves were generated.
A survey is given on the basic factor affecting the determination of90Sr in milk and bones by removal of the excess calcium by precipitation. Strong co-precipitation of calcium and strontium takes
place using fuming nitric acid, potassium hexacyano-ferrate, EDTA, ethanol-ether mixture and butanol-(1) due to partial precipitation,
recrystallization and adhesion processes where thepH value of the environment plays an improtant role. The obtained results show very limited applicability of these agents for
the determination of90Sr in biological materials because of low accuracy and reproducibility. This conclusion is especially valid for the method
of rapid determination of90Sr with EDTA according toWelford andSutton. In this work a method is given for the determination of90Sr in milk and bones using potassium hexacyanoferrate.
The effect of the dyeing on the melting behavior of poly(lactic acid) fabrics was investigated by differential scanning calorimeter.
The DSC melting peaks at 10C min-1 of the untreated poly(lactic acid) fabric were observed at a temperature higher than those of the dyed fabrics. The restricting
force from the extended tie molecules along the fiber axis seems to decrease in the dyeing process. When the sample was rapidly
heated, the crystallites melted at lower temperatures since recrystallization was restricted. It was estimated, based on the
heating-rate dependency of melting behavior, that the original crystallites of the untreated sample melted at 146.1C and
those of the dyed samples melted at higher temperatures, suggesting that their crystallites are grown to be more perfect in
the dyeing process.
The studies were devoted to determination of the effect of gas atmosphere and its pressure on the second step of decomposition
of hydrated titanium dioxide (HTD) promoted by sulfate groups.
It has been found that thermal decomposition of HTD at temperatures above 300C consists of a number of processes such as
dehydroxylation, desulfuration, recrystallization and sintering of solid grains, photochemical processes (if the decomposition
proceeds in the presence of light) and adsorption of gas phase components (in the presence of air or SO2).
Kinetic parameters characterizing this step of decomposition have been determined for processes carried out in vacuum and
in argon or air atmospheres (at a pressure of 13.33hPa). The kinetic curves of decomposition carried out in the presence of
gases capable of being adsorbed on the surface of partly dehydrated HTD are featured by local extrema due to simultaneous
processes of decomposition and adsorption of gas components.
Carrier-free strontium and cesium isotopes were used to study the heterogeneous exchange of the systems strontium/strontium
carbonate and cesium/cesium tetraphenylborate. The elements under consideration are among the long-lived isotopes most desired
to be removed from waste solutions and consequently the use of heterogeneous exchange as an applied phenomenon for selective
fixation is possible. The results obtained show that the above two systems are unstable ones (i. e., undergoing either formation
or dissolution of the precipitated solid phase). New modified equations were proposed for quantitative calculation of the
fraction of exchange, using only radiometric data and avoiding the use of microanalytical data. The equations are useful for
all unstable systems, especially if no precise microquentitative method of analysis is known for the element under consideration.
Recrystallization and self-diffusion were proposed to explain the two parts characterizing the exchange curves.
Authors:J. L. Pérez-Rodríguez, F. Franco, V. Ramírez-Valle, and L. A. Pérez-Maqueda
The differences on the thermal behaviour (DTG-DTA) of antigorite sample measured before and after sonication have been studied.
Sonication treatment produces negligible changes in the structure of the material but substantial textural modifications.
These modifications produce changes in the thermal behaviour of antigorite sample. Thus, it has been observed a decrease in
the dehydroxylation temperature as measured by DTG and DTA effects. For sonication treatments longer than 20 h, two new effects
of dehydroxylation are observed, the intensity of these two new effects increases with the sonication time showing a modification
in the release of structural OH. It has been also observed that the formation of forsterite takes place simultaneously with
the dehydroxylation of the antigorite. The high temperature exothermic effect is due to the recrystallization of forsterite
and not to the formation of forsterite as traditionally assumed. Modifications in the thermal dehydroxylation of antigorite
observed in this study are related to the pronounced decrease in particle size obtained by sonication.
Authors:M. Vedani, G. Angella, Paola Bassani, D. Ripamonti, and A. Tuissi
Equal channel angular
pressing (ECAP) was carried out on solution annealed samples of Al–Mg–Si–Zr
and Al–Mg–Si–Zr–Sc alloys to achieve a substantial
grain refinement of the materials. Post ECAP aging was then investigated on
the ultrafine grained alloys by DSC and TEM analyses.
were carried out with heating rates ranging from 5 to 30°C min–1.
Peak identification was performed by the support of literature information
and TEM analyses. Precipitation kinetics revealed to be similar for both alloys
but the Sc-free alloy showed a recrystallization peak at temperatures ranging
from 310 to 340°C, depending on the strain accumulated during ECAP. On
the contrary, the Sc-containing alloy showed a greater grain stability. Analyses
of peak positions and of activation energies as a function of ECAP passes
experienced by the samples revealed large modifications of precipitation kinetics
in the ultrafine-grained alloys with respect to the coarse-grained materials.