Authors:Peter Kapalo, Florin Domnita, and Jan Lojkovics
The aim of the paper is to determine a methodology for calculating the needed airflow rate (including fresh air) in an occupied room, based on carbon dioxide measurement and calculation, in order to maintain the comfort indoor air quality. The calculated airflow rate should optimize the investment and the operating costs of HVAC equipment. In the work there are analyzed the calculation methods used to determine the ventilation airflow rate. It is presented the methodology for calculating the ventilation airflow rate for a room with people inside by using the measured values of carbon dioxide concentration. The connection between carbon dioxide concentration and ventilation airflow rate is verified by experimental measurements. This methodology is applicable in Slovakia because it complies with all current standards. The result obtained by using this calculation method is almost the same with that achieved from experimental measurements. To confirm the results, it is presented a case study of an office with occupants, in which the ventilation airflow rate calculation method is applied.In the article only a part from the total work is presented. The experimental measurements were carried out from 2011 to 2014. Approximately 54 measurements were covering total days or weeks. The following factors have been measured: indoor air temperature, outdoor air temperature, relative humidity of indoor air, relative humidity of outdoor air, concentration of CO2 in indoor air, concentration of CO2 in outdoor air, pressure difference and wind velocity. Ventilation by infiltration was calculated based on these factors using several methodologies. The methodology of measurement is not subject to the article. In this article only one aspect is investigated: CO2 concentration.
Among sucking insect pests, the incidence of a leafhopper [Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida)] and a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] remained active through the cropping season in varying population density. Thrips [Thrips tabaci (Lindemann)] population was only observed in early stages of the crop growth. The leafhopper population attained its peak during 2nd half of July and was maximum (9.2 nymphs/3 leaves) in the year 2008. The population of whitefly adults was maximum (14.8 adults/3 leaves) in 2007 and it acquired its peak during end of July and again in end of September to early October. The incidence of thrips was maximum in June. The population of the A. biguttula showed significant positive correlation with minimum temperature (r=0.636; p=0.003), mean temperature (r=0.475; p=0.034), evening relative humidity (r=0.618; p=0.004) and rainfall (r=0.556; p=0.011). The correlation of B. tabaci population with minimum temperature was significantly positive (r=0.454; p=0.044). The multiple regression analysis revealed that all the weather parameters collectively accounted for variability in the A. biguttula and B. tabaci population with R2 values ranging from 0.67–0.80 and 0.50–0.69, respectively, during different years.
Authors:K. Viswajyothi, N. Aggarwal, and J. Jindal
The biology of Sesamia inferens (Walker) was studied at 25±1 °C
and 70±5 per cent relative humidity on PMH 1 maize hybrid. The incubation period
was 6.82±0.05 days. There were six larval instars and the larval development was
completed in 29.95±0.16 days. The duration of instars I-VI was 4.17±0.09,
3.60±0.08, 4.47±0.02, 4.40±0.03, 6.18±0.06 and 7.13±0.05 days, respectively. The
pre-pupal period was 2.83±0.02 days. The male and female pupa had duration of
8.05±0.12 days and 10.33±0.16 days, respectively. The adult emergence was
93.02±0.01 per cent, with a sex ratio of 1:1.05. The males had shorter longevity
of 3.92±0.23 days, while females had 5.05±0.28 days. The pre-oviposition,
oviposition and post-oviposition period was 1.11±0.10, 2.96±0.19 and 0.79±0.10
days, respectively. The fecundity was 211.92 ±11.92 eggs with 53.69±10.78 eggs
per cluster. The egg hatchability was 92.19±0.01 per cent. The total life cycle
was completed in 47.65±0.24 days (Male) and 49.93±0.21 days (female). The
observations on the biology will help in developing efficient strategies to
manage S. inferens on maize in the north western plains of
Authors:R. Srinivasan, V. Shanmugam, A. Kamalakannan, and M. Surendran
Aspergillus niger was found to be the predominant pathogen associated with black mould rot of onion during storage. Market survey for the assessment of spoilage caused by the fungus recorded a loss of 2.9% to 12.09% during the period from June 1998 to February 1999. Application of higher doses of calcium in the form of gypsum (400 kg/ha) and lower dose of nitrogen in the form of urea (50 kg/ha) to the field and advancing the harvest of onion bulbs by fifteen days significantly reduced the spoilage of bulbs during storage. An inverse relationship existed between neck length of the bulbs and spoilage at storage. Bulb rotting was noticed when the storage temperature was between 30 °C and 40 °C and the relative humidity was above 80%. Further, A. niger infection caused reduction in pungency of onion bulbs which was more pronounced at grade 4 than grade 1. The culture filtrates of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus isolated from onion as well as the extracts from onion bulbs infected with the above fungi were free from aflatoxin contamination.
The effect of organic growing was studied on the storability of apple cv. Jonica, Liberty, Mutsuand Pinova. Fruits from integrated and organic orchards were stored at 2-4 °C, 95-99% relative humidity for 6 months. Firmness, activity of b-galactosidase and polygalacturonase enzymes were examined. There was no difference in the activity of β-galactosidase and polygalacturonase enzymes at harvest between the organic and integrated apples, but a significant difference was noted between the cultivars except for Mutsu and Pinova. The activity of b-galactosidase enzyme increased significantly during storage except for cv. Pinova and that of polygalacturonase enzyme also increased significantly. The difference in the activity of polygalacturonase became significant between the cultivars during storage except for cv. Jonica and Pinova. The firmness decreased significantly during storage, with the least change in case of cv. Liberty. It can be established that there is, in general, neither a considerable difference between the growing systems nor between varieties at harvest. The differences became higher during storage. It can be stated that the effect of cultivar on the storability is much more considerable than the effect of growing system.
Aerosol particles smaller than 1.8 m were size-fractionated with micro-orifice impactors at two urban sites near Washington, DC, and analyzed for 44 elements including, As, Se, Sb, and Zn, i.e., elements strongly associated with coal combustion, incineration, and regionally transported secondary aerosol, by Instrumental Neutron Activation. Size distribution parameters were determined nonparametrically and with a least-squares peak-fitting method using impactor calibration data. Geometric and fitted mass mean aerodynamic diameters typically differed by <10% and increased continuously with increasing relative humidity (RH) in the range 56 to 79%, but along different curves for samples influenced by local and distant sources. The geometric mass mean diameters for samples influenced by winds from the direction of local sources were uniformly smaller than those influenced by westerly winds bearing aerosol from distant, regional, sources. At 60% RH, gmmads were As, 0.30±0.03 and 0.46±0.04; Se, 0.33±0.06 and 0.54±0.04; Sb, 0.39±0.03 and 0.53±0.04; and Zn, 0.39±0.06 and 0.53±0.08; respectively.
Authors:I. Bravo-Osuna, A. Muńoz-Ruiz, M. Jiménez-Castellanos, J. Ford, and M. Whelan
The use of modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the measurement of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in polymer-water systems presents several important problems. These include the presence of water evaporation endotherms, partial water evaporation during scanning, changes in pan integrity due to vapour pressure developing in the pan headspace during analysis, and possible interaction between water and polymer at high temperatures. As a result, in most of the cases, only apparent Tg values can be obtained. In this study, TMDSC and DSC were used to determinate the thermal behaviour of methylmethacrylate copolymer-water systems. The samples were previously equilibrated at different relative humidities (RH) from 0 to 97% RH. Three different pan arrangements were used. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis (TG) was carried out to determine the initial amount of water in the sample. None of the pan arrangements was entirely suitable for the study of these systems. When sealed pans were used, the plastification effect of water was observed. Some evidence of degradation was also observed in which water and methylmethacrylate appeared to play roles.
Authors:D. Giron, Ch. Goldbronn, M. Mutz, S. Pfeffer, Ph. Piechon, and Ph. Schwab
Manufacturing processes may involve the presence of water in the crystallization of the drug substance or in manufacturing
or in the composition of the drug product through excipients. Dehydration steps may occur in drying, milling, mixing and tabletting
processes. Furthermore, drug substances and drug products are submitted to different temperatures and relative humidities,
due to various climatic conditions giving rise to unexpected hydration or dehydration aging phenomena. Therefore the manufacture
and the characterization of hydrates is part of the study of the physical properties of drug substances.
Several hydrates and even polymorphic forms thereof can be encountered. Upon dehydration crystal hydrates may retain more
or less their original crystal structure, they can lose crystallinity and give anamorphous phase, they can transform to crystalline
less hydrated forms or to crystalline anhydrous forms.
The proper understanding of the complex polyphasic systemhydrates–polymorphs–amorphous state needs several analytical methods.
The use of techniques such as DSC-TG, TG-MS, sorption-desorption isotherms, sub-ambient experiments, X-ray diffraction combined
with temperature or moisture changes as well as crystal structure and crystal modelling in addition to solubilities and dissolution
experiments make interpretation and quantitation easier as demonstrated with some typical examples.
The interaction between samples of metallic zinc and water vapour was studied gravimetrically, both in the absence and in
the presence of oxygen. The experimental total mass gain vs. time curves exhibited two plateaus, whose heights increased with,
elevations both of relative humidity and of temperature. The amount of product retained on the surface after desorption was
also determined as a function of time. The product was identified as hydrated zinc oxide. In the runs conducted without oxygen,
the retained product curves displayed a time delay with respect to the total mass gain curves. In the presence of oxygen,
however, there was practically only one chronogravimetric curve. This behaviour is interpreted on the basis of a common mechanism
involving the formation of an intermediate precursor oxide, which is more readily formed in the presence of oxygen than in
its absence. A set of mathematical equations was derived, from which the rate constants for both processes were obtained.
The second step was ascribed to a further weak adsorption of water.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a thermal analysis of the hydrolysis and degradation behavior of biodegradable polymers
and bio-composites at 50°C and 90% relative humidity (RH). With increasing hydrolysis time, the thermal stability and degradation
temperature of polybutylene succinate (PBS) slightly decreased. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and melting temperature (Tm) of PBS and the anti-hydrolysis agent treated PBS did not vary significantly with increasing hydrolysis time, whereas those
of the trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA)-treated PBS slightly increased. With increasing hydrolysis time, the storage
modulus (E’) values of the bio-composites decreased, whereas those of the TMPTA treated bio-composites slightly increased. Also, the
tan values of the anti-hydrolysis agent and TMPTA treated PBS-BF bio-composites were slightly lower than those of the non-treated
bio-composites, due to the reduction in their degree of hydrolysis. The tanδmax peak temperature (Tg) of the anti-hydrolysis agent treated bio-composites was not significantly changed, whereas that of the TMPTA treated bio-composites