comparing with NDM-1 [ 23 ]. In another study on NDM variant of antibiotic susceptibility profile, an increase in MIC values against carbapenems has been observed in NDM-5 and NDM-7 [ 24 ]. Another work showed that the NDM-producing isolates exhibited high
Stoichiometrically adjusted antimony triselenide and antimony tritelluride semiconductors were carefully prepared for the first time. Numerous measurements were carried out, involving X-ray diffraction analysis, true density, thermogravimetric analysis and the temperature-dependence of the magnetic susceptibility. The results obtained indicated that antimony triselenide and antimony tritelluride polycrystals possess mass susceptibilities of −0.361×10−6 and −0.386×10−6 C.G.S., respectively. The results are discussed on the basis of electronegativity difference, partial ionicity of the bond, and bond strength.
Authors:G. Testa, A. Reyneri, F. Cardinale, and M. Blandino
Foliar fungicides are widely used to control pests on several crops and, from mid-2000s, have become more common on maize. The yield advantages derived from foliar fungicides on maize, as for other crops, could be related not only to the direct control of the disease, but also to physiological effects on the plant. The aim of the research was to evaluate the response of maize to the application of an azoxystrobin and propiconazole mixture. The fungicide was applied to hybrids with different susceptibility to northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) foliar disease at the beginning of stem elongation or at the tassel emergence stage. The best application timing resulted to be at the tassel emergence stage for both pathogen control and grain yield. The treatment effectively controlled disease development on the two hybrids susceptible to NCLB. However, the yield of the moderately-resistant hybrid increased unexpectedly to a comparable extent, even though no significant fungal containment was detected from a visual inspection. The peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, the protein leaf content and the translocation efficiency of carbohydrates from the leaf to the ear were not influenced by the fungicide treatments, differently from what had been previously shown on wheat. The authors suggest that rather than the improved metabolism of the reactive oxygen species, the positive effect of the fungicide on the moderately-resistant hybrid is due to other physiological mechanisms. It is hypothesized that the fungicide leads to better yields as it prevents the allocation of metabolic resources to actively defend against the pathogen.
Authors:Dávid Herczeg, Dóra Sipos, Ádám Dán, Christina Loy, Dennis M. Kallert, and Edit Eszterbauer
. , Kania , P. W. and Buchmann , K. ( 2011 ): Dose dependent effects of dietary immunostimulants on rainbow trout immune parameters and susceptibility to the parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis . J. Aquac. Res. Development S3 , 001
Authors:Trudy Wassenaar, David Ussery, Lene Nielsen, and Hanne Ingmer
, Cirasola D, Aragones L, Coelho JR, Freitas AT, Marchi E, Moce L, Visa P, Northwood JB, Viti C, Borghi E, Orefici G; BIOHYPO Consortium, Morrissey I, Oggioni MR: Evaluation of reduced susceptibility to quaternary ammonium compounds and bisbiguanides in
Authors:É. Varga, É. Palkonyai, P. Temesvári, F. Tóth, and I. B. Petri
Seidl C, Donner H, Petershofen E, Usadel KH, Seifried E, Kaltwasser JP, Badenhoop K: An endogenous retroviral long terminal repeat at the HLA-DQB1 gene locus confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis. Hum Immunol 60 : 63-68 (1999
Authors:S. Bereswill, R. Plickert, A. Fischer, A. A. Kühl, C. Loddenkemper, A. Batra, B. Siegmund, U. B. Göbel, and M. M. Heimesaat
Enterocolitis caused by Campylobacter jejuni-infections represents an important socioeconomic burden worldwide. Recent results from novel murine infection models reveal that the intestinal microbiota is essential for maintaining colonization resistance against C. jejuni. We extended these studies to investigate the role of nutrition and obesity in susceptibility to C. jejuni-infection. Gnotobiotic (GB) mice generated by antibiotic treatment, which were fed with a human cafeteria diet (CAF), as well as obese (ob/ob) mice with a conventional microbiota harbored higher Escherichia coli loads in their colon as compared to respective controls. Following oral infection, C. jejuni 43431 ATCC readily colonized the intestines of CAF and ob/ob mice, whereas GB mice fed with a standard chow (MUD) eradicated the pathogen within days. Furthermore, live C. jejuni translocated into mesenteric lymph nodes of CAF, but not MUD mice. Strikingly, stably infected animals developed enterocolitis as indicated by increased numbers of immune and apoptotic cells in the colon in situ.
We conclude that a specific human diet and obesity render mice susceptible to C. jejuni infection. The corresponding murine models are excellently suited for the study of C. jejuni pathogenesis and will help to get further insights into interplays between C. jejuni, microbiota, diet, obesity and immunity.
In South Africa, the avocado (Persea americana) is an important fruit, grown primarily for export and contributing ZAR 1.75 billion to the gross domestic product of the country. As an export driven industry, optimising exportable avocado fruit volume is a primary concern. Wind induced abrasion and damage by thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), through their feeding on avocado fruit results in corky tissue development (scarring) and making the fruit unsuitable for export. The study aimed to determine the economic losses caused by these agents as well as assess different cultivar responses to scarring damage. Across cultivars, the 1.49% revenue annually due to Scirtothrips aurantii downgrading (3.86% loss factor), translating to ZAR 34.90 million (US$2.39 million). Packhouse study results showed that both thrips and wind abrasion damage accounted for 30% scarring damage, a loss factor of 13.72% and a combined revenue loss of 5.57%. The cultivar ‘Pinkerton’ showed the greatest susceptibility to scarring damage by both wind and S. aurantii whilst the cultivar ‘Carmen®-Hass’ showed a natural predisposition to higher levels of thrips damage. The presence of macadamia trees near avocado trees predisposes avocado fruit to S. aurantii damage.