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Abstract  

Different iron hydroxide precipitation processes simulating radioactive waste, treatment have been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and at 80 K. Magnetic oxides (hematite or magnetite) partially affected by superparamagnetic relaxation have been observed. The crystallization degree and the particle size depend on the concentration and the addition order of chemicals. Much smaller particles were precipitated with Ca(OH)2 than with NaOH as neutralization reagent.

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Synthetic Fe—Mn alkoxide of glycerol samples are submitted to controlled heating conditions and examined by IR absorption spectroscopy. On the other hand, the same sample is studied by infrared emission spectroscopy (IRES), upon heating in situ from 100 to 600°C. The spectral techniques employed in this contribution, especially IRES, show that as a result of the thermal treatments ferromagnetic oxides (manganese ferrite) are formed between 350 and 400°C. Some further spectral changes are seen at higher temperatures.

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The number of the cities with canalized water and sewage treatment stations has increased lately and consequently having in mind the great concern on environment preservation and the quality of the water used by society. However, these stations are nowadays causing another kind of problem: a huge quantity of sludge as residue. Due to the implication of the residue on the environment and, consequently, to human life quality, performing of an accurate investigation about the components of such sludge, as well as the thermal stability of this residue in the environment become necessary. This paper presents a study on sludge from water and sewage treatment station, as well as the thermal characterization of residue. Such study was performed through FTIR, atomic absorption, thermoanalytical (TG/DTG, DTA) techniques, that made it possible to observe that the main components of the sludge are clay, carbonates and organic substance, presenting a low rate of metals and a unique thermal behavior since the sludge from the treatment station has a higher thermal stability.

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“In-House” resin Polyacrylhydroxamic acid (PHOA) has been synthesized and utilized targeting ground water remediation; recovery of uranium from low concentration aqueous solution e.g., mining activities related water, flooding of excavated or deplumed areas, nuclear plant washed effluent and process generated effluents in nuclear plant during front-end as well as back-end treatment. In the present study, treatment of field effluent containing heavy metals and radio-nuclides from contaminated mining sites reflected preference for uranium with respect to manganese. The specific complexation between the extractant and metal ion especially uranium provides high distribution co-efficient (K d) for uranium (K d,U = 1,450 mL/g from inlet of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) and K d,U = 74,950 mL/g for synthetic solution) compared to high level impurity (1,000 times higher concentration) of manganese (K d,Mn = 111 mL/g from inlet of ETP and K d,Mn = 10,588 mL/g for synthetic solution). The “In-House” resin showed significant extractability (70–95% elution efficiency) and indicates a possibility of selective removal/recovery of the valuable metal ions even from secondary sources. As a specialty, resin can be regenerated and reused.

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Kaolinites from well-known sources (KGa-1 and KGa-2) were used to study the influence of the particle-size reduction on the dehydroxylation process. Size reduction of particles was obtained by ultrasound treatment to avoid the effect of the progressive amorphization of the structure, which takes place with the traditional grinding treatment. The particle-size reduction causes an increase of the mass loss between 140 and 390°C attributed to the loss of the hydroxyl groups exposed on the external surface of kaolinite; a shift to lower temperatures of the endothermic effect related with the mass loss between 390 and 600°C; and a shift of the end of dehydroxylation to lower temperatures. The first modification can be explained by an increase of the number of hydroxyls exposed on the external surface of kaolinite which is proportional to the new surface generated in the particle reduction process, whereas the shift of the dehydroxylation to lower temperatures is related to the reduction of the dimensions of the particles which favour the diffusion controlled mechanisms. Comparing between the DTA curves to the TG curves of the studied samples shows that the observed modifications in the thermal properties induced by the particle-size reduction are greater for the low-defect kaolinite. The intensity of these modifications depends on the effectiveness of the ultrasound treatment.

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At French spa, La Bourboule, arsenical mineral waters are applicated by several ways. The process and degree of absorption of water are not well known; so, we tried to study absorption, measuring arsenic concentration in the blood and in some organs. On rabbits, thirty minutes after the animal had drunk mineral water, the increase of arsenic concentration in its blood is about twenty times and it is only about three to nine time in lungs, bronchia and traches. On human subjects, it was observed an increase of five times in the blood, two hours after treatment.

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A system made up by a Zymark robot and a separation automate preteats spent fuel samples and monitors a tri-n-octylphosphine oxide column extraction chromatographic procedure in order to isolate and purify uranium and plutonium present in the samples, prior to the spectrometric measurements. Up to 16 subsamples of spent fuel in dried or solution form are handled simultaneously in a completely unattended mode. The throughput of the robotized analytical procedure has increased by a factor of 3 compared to the earlier manual procedure without loss in the quality of the chemical treatment and of the mass- and -spectrometric measurements.

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For recent years, the labeling and application of Somatostatin and Its Analogues have been becoming more and more important in the both diagnosis and treatment of a variety of tumors, especially the neuroendocrine tumors. This paper's goals are to deal with the chemical aspects of the radiolabeling of somatostatin and its analogues. It reviews the selected radionuclides and bifunctional chelating agents may be used in the labeling of Somatostatin and its analogues with metal radionuclides. The prospects of application of the Labelled Somatostatin and its analogues are comparatively assessed.

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Radiation treatment in the presence of catalysts such as anatase, P25 and bentonite showed efficient removal of TCE (trichloroethylene) and PCE (perchloroethylene) compared with gamma-irradiation alone. Gamma-ray pretreatment of P25 and bentonite enhanced the decomposition of TCE and PCE, respectively. The change in the catalysts by gamma-rays was characterized by their EPR spectra. For anatase and bentonite, the peaks in the spectra increased significantly, and the pattern of the spectra changed in the case of P25. The relationship between the peaks and pollutant decomposition should be further clarified due to the complexity of the spectra.

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This paper describes ongoing research into the multi-physics model development of an electrorefining process for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel. A forced convection of molten eutectic (LiCl–KCl) electrolyte in an electrorefining cell is considered to establish an appropriate electro-fluid model within the 3-dimensional framework of a conventional computational fluid dynamic model. This computational platform includes the electrochemical reaction rate of charge transfer kinetics which is described by a Butler–Volmer equation, while mass transport is considered using an ionic transport equation. The coupling of the local overpotential distribution and uranium concentration gradient makes it possible to predict the local current density distribution at the electrode surfaces.

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