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The required quality of compost depends on its final use. All the requirements must be focused on obtaining a product with an acceptable aspect and smell, which is hygienic and free from (or with only traces of) impurities and contaminants. The concept of compost quality especially relevant when the compost is used directly, as a substrate for seedling production or in pots; these applications need high-quality compost. The quality of compost based on concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants and on the absence of pathogens. The aim of the experiment was to prove the absence of the risk using this material in cereal production. The results of the last years suggest that there was no toxic element accumulation in the grain yield of triticale plants.Monitoring of phatogen reduction shows the conventional treatment by mesophilic digestion gives a limited reduction in the content of phatogens. The potential toxic effect of anaerobic digestate was measured in biotest with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) plants. The rapid biotests proved toxic reduction of plant growth and root development at high rate application of digestate in the first days of germination. The reason of the reduction of root could be explained with the high ammonium concentration of digestate.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: E. Khlestkina, E. Antonova, L. Pershina, A. Soloviev, E. Badaeva, A. BÖrner, and E. Salina

Anthocyanin accumulation in vegetative organs has a relationship to stress resistance in plants. In wheat, ability to accumulate anthocyanins in the coleoptile is inherited and controlled by the Rc (red coleoptile) genes. The aim of the current study was to find potential sources of ‘strong’ Rc alleles conferring very high levels of anthocyanin production and to study the effect of genetic background on Rc expression. We measured the relative anthocyanin content (OD530) in the coleoptile of different wheat and wheat-alien genetic stocks and accessions to find potential sources of ‘strong’ Rc alleles conferring very high levels of anthocyanin production. The OD530 values varied from 0.514 to 3.311 in genotypes having red coleoptiles. The highest anthocyanin content was detected in coleoptiles of four Triticum dicoccoides accessions originating from Israel and the Russian T. aestivum cultivar ‘Novosibirskaya 67’, suggesting that their Rc alleles can be used to increase anthocyanin content in the coleoptile of wheat cultivars. It is also suggested that rye Rc alleles, such as that of Russian cultivar ‘Selenga’, can be used to increase anthocyanin content in triticale seedlings.

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It is well established that the ingestion of cereal prolamins, such as gluten, causes the characteristic symptoms of celiac disease (CD) in people predisposed to it. DNA-based PCR method provides new ways to detect gluten in processed foodstuffs, such as bread. The aim of this work was to adapt a new primer pair combination and to initiate a carefully elaborated PCR methodology to experiment with DNA-based analysis. At first, the purity of cleaned DNA was verified using B49317 and A49855 chloroplast DNA primer pair. Then TR01/2 wheat specific PCR primer pair was used for checking the origin of the DNA, and P1/2 microsatellite (SSR) adapted primer pair for detecting allergen (gluten) specific residues. Method optimisation was achieved with cereal flour samples, then bread and dry pasta products from wheat were used, which were analysed as heat-treated samples with three primer pairs. The gluten specific primer pair was tested on cross-reactive cereals such as rye, barley, triticale and on some questionable cereals, such as oat, and pseudo-cereals, e.g. buck wheat and amaranth.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: H. Khan, S.C. Bhardwaj, O.P. Gangwar, P. Prasad, P.L. Kashyap, S. Savadi, S. Kumar, and R. Rathore

A set of forty wheat cultivars comprising bread wheat, durum and triticale identified during 2010–2014 were tested for resistance to Indian pathotypes of leaf, stem and yellow rusts at seedling stage under controlled conditions. Eight Lr genes (Lr1, Lr3, Lr10, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr23, Lr24 and Lr26) were characterized based on differential interactions with specific rust races. Genes Lr23, Lr26 and Lr13 conferred leaf rust resistance in most of the accessions. Three Yr genes (YrA, Yr2 and Yr9) were inferred in 40 genotypes, where Yr2 followed by Yr9 were most frequent in conferring stripe rust resistance. Ten Sr genes, namely, Sr2, Sr5, Sr8a, Sr7b, Sr9b, Sr9e, Sr11, Sr13, Sr24 and Sr31, were postulated in these lines with predominance of Sr11, Sr31 and Sr2. These Lr, Sr and Yr genes were observed singly or in combination. Robust DNA markers were used to identify adult plant resistance genes Yr18/Lr34/Sr57, Lr68 and Sr2 and all stage resistance genes Lr24/Sr24, Sr28 and Yr9/Lr26/Sr31. STS marker iag95 showed presence of Yr9 in four additional cultivars which were resistant to one or more rusts. Gene Sr28 was identified in seven durum cultivars with the wPt7004 marker. This is first report of Sr28 being present in many Indian wheat cultivars. CsGs-STS marker identified Lr68 in nine cultivars.

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Lukaszewski A.J., Apolinarska B., Gustafson J.P., Krolow K.D. 1987. Chromosome pairing and aneuploidy in tetraploid triticale. II. Unstabilized karyotypes. Genome 29: 562–569. Krolow K

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Kafi, M., Stewart, W. S. (1998): Effects of high temperature on yield and yield components of nine wheat cultivars and a triticale. Iran Agric. Res. , 17 , 51–66. Stewart W. S

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415 428 Márton, L. 2004: Effect of mineral fertilization, liming and rainfall on the yield of Rye, Potato, Winter Wheat and Triticale. (In Hungarian). Agrokémia

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different Gramineae genera for haploid induction in triticale and triticale × wheat hybrids through chromosome elimination technique. Plant Breeding 124 :147–153. Chaudhary HK Relative

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New wheat × barley, wheat × Aegilops biuncialis and wheat × rye hybrids were produced with the aim of alien gene transfer from these species into wheat. Amphiploids were produced with the help of colchicine treatment from the last two combinations. The new wheat × barley hybrids were multiplied in tissue culture because of the high degree of sterility and then pollinated with wheat to obtain backcross progenies. Wheat-barley chromosome pairing was detected using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in two combinations (Mv9 kr1 × Igri, Asakazekomugi × Manas). In vitro conditions caused an increase in chromosome arm association frequency in both combinations and in fertility in some regenerants. Five wheat-barley translocations were produced in a wheat background and characterized through the combination of cytogenetic and molecular genetic approaches (GISH, FISH and SSR markers). The following translocations were identified: 2DS.2DL-1HS, 3HS.3BL, 6BS.6BL-4HL, 4D-5HS and 7DL.7DS-5HS. Physical mapping of the SSR markers on chromosomes 1H and 5H was carried out using the intragenomic and interspecific translocation breakpoints and the centromere as physical landmarks.  Disomic wheat-Aegilops biuncialis additions were produced after backcrossing the wheat-Ae. biuncialis amphiploids. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out using two repetitive DNA clones (pSc119.2 and pAs1) on Ae. biuncialis and its two diploid progenitor species to detect chromosome polymorphism. The 7M and 3M disomic chromosome additions were selected and five more lines still need to be characterized.  The octoploid triticale (Mv9 kr1 × Lovászpatonai) produced in Martonvásár was crossed with a 1RS.1BL wheat cultivar Matador. GISH analysis detected pairing between the 1RS arm of the translocation chromosome and that of Lovászpatonai rye in 32 % of the pollen mother cells, making it possible to select recombinants from this combination. The new recombinants between the 1RS of Petkus and the 1RS of Lovászpatonai rye cultivars are being analysed with the help of microsatellite markers.

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controlling aluminum tolerance in wheat, rye and triticale. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 26 :701–705. Gustafson J.P. Chromosome location of genes controlling aluminum tolerance in wheat, rye

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