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In 1539, a peculiar Latin-Hungarian (more precisely: Hungarian-Latin) grammar was published by Johannes Sylvester, dedicating the grammar (probably symbolically) to his son. Unfortunately enough, his grammar got lost in the war-stricken times of the first half of the 16th century. At the end of the 18th century, however, it was found again and then republished. Being lost, the grammar in question could not influence the grammarians of Sylvester’s age.The “discovery” of the mother tongues in Europe, the birth of a new spirituality (Reformation) and the compelling drive to translate the Bible into vernaculars were the unmistakable signs of the first linguistic revolution.The grammar actually is a contrastive analysis of Latin, Greek and a lesser degree German, Hebrew and Hungarian. What is more interesting, its deals with structure and not with single word comparisons. Sylvester was the first in Europe to articulate the basic difference between the chief European languages (Latin, [Ancient] Greek, German and the non-European Hebrew) and Hungarian revealing that Hungarian is of postpositional character; so he was the first in Europe to discover agglutination as the basic feature of Hungarian (though he was not familiar with this term). Among other things, he casually mentions the relationship of Hebrew (the “lingua sancta”) to Hungarian, as was the linguistic trend of his age.

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Leviticus, 16. 3, 5, 6, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22. The Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version (Toronto-New York-Edinburgh, 1953), 119-120. E. H. Erikson, Insight and Responsibility (New York, 1964

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The paper is devoted to analyzing examples of the use of constructions “O + locative”, which have the meaning of “basis of activity, instrument”. Our interest in these examples is due, firstly, to the fact that this meaning of the preposition O is completely absent in modern Russian. Secondly, in some cases, this construction found in Old Slavonic texts is replaced in Church Slavonic by the construction “ВЪ + locative”, which is a calque from the ancient Greek construction “έν + dative” (often having the meaning of “a tool”) but this substitution is inconsistent. Thirdly, the constructions “O + locative” and “ + locative” appear in the Old Slavonic manuscripts in parallel. The main aim of the study is to identify the shades of meaning that the creators of Old Slavonic texts distinguished in the ancient Greek construction “έν + dative”, choosing “O + locative” as a variant of translation; and to determine whether the indicated meaning of the preposition O was original in the Slavic languages or this preposition was acquired in the process of translating Biblical texts.

The research is based on the Sinai Psalter, the Zographic and Ostromir Gospels, the Ostroh and Elizabethan Bibles as well as the examples (contained in the dictionaries of the Old Slavic, Old Russian, and Church Slavonic languages) from the Mariinsky Four Gospels, Assemaniev’s Gospel, Savin’s book, Euchology of Sinai, and Supralsky manuscript.

The construction “έν + dative” is translated not only by “O + locative”. The former is also regularly translated by constructions of the instrumental case without a preposition (in Old Slavonic and Church Slavonic texts). The possibility of forming of the meaning of the action source under the influence of the construction “OTЪ + genitive” is also considered. In general, the dynamics of evolution of the meaning of “O + locative” is traced in the paper. It is concluded that the analyzed “O + locative” construction acquired the meaning of “basis of activity, instrument” at the time of the creation of Old Slavonic Bible translations. This is due to the process of reflection on the text, which became possible with the appearance of the written Slavonic language and the comparison of this construction with a simple instrumental case, combinations of “OTЪ + genitive” and “ + locative”, which in some cases acted as synonymous and could be chosen by translators either spontaneously or with the aim to express nuances of meaning. This is demonstrated with the elimination of ancient Greek tracing, as well as the reverse replacement of “O + locative” by “ + locative”. The instrumental case without a preposition was similar to “O + locative” in the expression of the causal meaning as well as in indicating the source of the action; the con- struction of “OTЪ + genitive”, in addition to the similarity of meaning, in terms of spelling and phonetics also resembled “O + locative”. The construction “O + locative” turned out to be more stable in the cases of indicating an animate source or basis of activity.

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Abstract

The paper looks – mainly from the point of view of iconography – at the intricate composition of the icon of The Mother of God “The Life-giving Fountain” made around 1700 and once used in the former Serbian orthodox church of Győr. Despite the Greek title of the icon calling the Mother of God the Life-giving Fountain, it only partly fits into the tradition of this Byzantine icon type that evolved in the Palaeologan age. The relic is astonishingly innovative not only in the Hungarian stock of icons but also in the whole of post-Byzantine icon painting first of all on account of its secondary motifs. The analysis of analogies and pictorial sources of the individual compositional elements – various plant motifs, the fountain, the coronation of the Virgin, motifs alluding to the celestial sphere – has revealed that the Győr icon is an elaborate complex of western influences arriving into post-Byzantine art along diverse routes. The inscriptions also tie the icon to the Byzantine Akathist hymn to the Blessed Virgin which includes the same symbols of Mary rooted in the Bible as were widespread in the West as well in the early baroque cult of the Virgin. The Győr icon has connections with post-Byzantine iconographic types displaying the influence of western art, such as the tree of Jesse, the Unfading rose, which together with the Life-giving Fountain icon were popular in the 16–17th century icon painting in the territory between Venice, Crete and Athos. The special art historical place of the studied icon is, however, defined by its closest iconographic analogy, the Sammelikone surviving in the imperial court of Vienna, in which the central image of the Life-giving Fountain is added the votive portraits of Emperor Leopold I and his wife. The Győr icon of the Life-giving Fountain is most probably related to some orthodox ethnic group (Serbs, Greeks, Macedonians) who fled the Ottomans to the area of the Habsburg Empire.

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Adang, C. (1996): Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible: From Ibn Rabban to Ibn Ḥazm . Leiden, E. J. Brill. Adang C

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. cit. , 374. Biblical citation: The Holy Bible: Revised Standard Version. Published by W. M. Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. for The Bible Societies, 1971. Ottokár Prohászka: Föld és ég. II. kötet. In: Összegyűjtött munkái 4

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Struthers 2006 = Struthers Jane: La Bible de la Chiromancie: Un guide pratique pour la lecture des lignes de la main Paris, Guy Trédaniel Éditeur, 2006. Struthers J

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. & Nida, E. 1986. From One Language to Another: Functional Equivalence in Bible Translating. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers. From One Language to Another: Functional Equivalence in Bible Translating

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Splendour of Translation Gutt, E. A. 1992. Relevance Theory: A Guide to Successful Communication in Translation. New York: United Bible Societies

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: Präster, predikare och profeter [Ministers, Preachers and Prophets], Gudea. HASSING, Arne 1980: Religion and Power. The Case of Methodism in Norwegian History, Wainesville, North Carolina. Holy Bible, The, Containing

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