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Scientometrics
Authors: Claude Robert, Concepción Wilson, Jean-François Gaudy, and Charles-Daniel Arreto

Abstract  

During the 1974–2004 period, the sleep literature had quadrupled (2384 publications in 1974, and 9721 in 2004) while overall scientific productivity had only doubled. The set of the seven most productive countries (USA, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada and Italy) in sleep research, and the geographical region distribution remained stable over the three decades. On the other hand several indicators appeared in the sleep research literature during the 1990s: the increasing productivity of sleep researchers; the growing number of countries publishing on sleep; the continuous creation of sleep-focused journals; the scattering of sleep publication among increasingly more scientific journals; the turnover among the leading journals; and the emergence of new entities such as China, Turkey, and the European Union.

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Abstract  

The internationalization of ten of China’s English-language scientific journals is analyzed based on their Impact Factor, Total Citation, JCR list rank, international paper proportion and international citation proportion. Six of these journals were financed three times by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSF) between 2001–2006 and four journals maintained a higher impact factor (>1.0) in 2003–2005. The data show that though the total trend of Impact Factor and Total Citation keeps rising, their subject rank has shown a slight decrease. Moreover, the proportion of international papers and international citations do not match their JCR rank and IF: high rank journals have a low proportion of international papers (Chinese Phys Lett, Chinese Phys) and low rank journals have a high Impact Factor (Cell Res, Asian J Androl). This inconsistency may result from their insufficient internationalization either in international paper proportion (less than 20%) or in the amount of high-quality manuscripts, probably caused by their local journal title, circulation and low IF. Suggested means of improving internationalization include encouraging Chinese scientists to cite more home journals when they publish their papers in foreign journals; soliciting the submission of international co-authorships based on the unavailability of pure foreign authorship; cooperating with internationally recognized publishers to utilize their globalization platform; employing overseas scientists to recruit international papers; improving writing style and content, to enable greater accessibility to worldwide readers.

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Abstract  

We have compared bibliometric data of Czech research papers generated from 1994 to 2005 with papers from six other EU countries: Austria, Hungary, Poland, Finland, Ireland and Greece. The Czech Republic ranked the fifth in number of papers per thousand inhabitants and the sixth in number of citations/paper. Relatively the most cited were Czech papers from fields Engineering and Mathematics ranking the third, and Computer Science, Environment/Ecology and Molecular Biology ranking the fourth among 7 EU countries. Our analysis indicates that Czech research is lagging behind the leading EU countries, but its output is proportional to the R&D expenses.

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Abstract  

In this study we have focused on long term developments of various types of scientific publishing, and the field-normalized impact generated by these various types. The types of scientific output distinguished are output resulting from international cooperation, national cooperation, and single address publications, in which no apparent cooperation is found. A fourth type is distinguished by focusing on first authorship, within the international cooperation output. Changes in especially the share of a country’s output from first-authored international cooperation and the share of single address publications can be regarded as indicators of strength and/or weakness of a science system.

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Abstract  

The literature dedicated to the analysis of the difference in research productivity between the sexes tends to agree in indicating better performance for men. Through bibliometric examination of the entire population of research personnel working in the scientific-technological disciplines of Italian university system, this study confirms the presence of significant differences in productivity between men and women. The differences are, however, smaller than reported in a large part of the literature, confirming an ongoing tendency towards decline, and are also seen as more noticeable for quantitative performance indicators than other indicators. The gap between the sexes shows significant sectorial differences. In spite of the generally better performance of men, there are scientific sectors in which the performance of women does not prove to be inferior.

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Abstract  

This article reports findings from the study of the international contribution to the system of library and information science communication in Poland in the years 2003–2005. The sample consists of articles published both in selected journals and collective works. Two important dimensions determining the internationalization of local scholarly communication are considered: direct contribution (foreign authors’ articles and papers and their translations published in Poland) and indirect contribution (citedness of foreign authors’ documents in articles and papers published in Poland). Bibliographic data about the geographical distribution and affiliation of foreign authors are gathered and analyzed. Furthermore, the findings of citation analysis are presented to determine the percentage share of citations received by foreign documents as well as to find out what is the structure of such citations regarding the language and form, which thematic areas are most replete with such citations and which foreign journals are most cited in Poland.

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Summary  

Bibliographic data on biomedical literature of Nigeria drawn from articles listed in Medline covering the period 1967-2002, and numbering 6820 were analysed to study the pattern of productivity of various author categories using Lotka's law. The total of 2184 authors who wrote the papers was divided into four different files, namely all authors, first authors, non-collaborative authors and co-authors. We hypothesized that the productivity patterns of each of the categories of authors differed from Lotka's inverse power law. The results showed that only the co-author category differed from the inverse power version of the law, while the other categories did not, although they yielded various exponents.

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Summary  

China has made great progress in economy and science in the last two decades. Its scientific development in gastroenterology has been seldom reported. Using two authoritative bibliographic databases, Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) and Medline, we analyze China's research output in gastroenterology journals from 1990 to 2004. After detailed analysis, we found that China have greatly advanced in gastroenterology research, but the growth of Chinese articles in gastroenterology journals can largely be attributed to the selection of China-based journals into international bibliographic databases.

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Abstract  

The science and engineering base is a key source of knowledge for the development and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). In order to be able to effectively describe and monitor world-wide scientific activity related to ICTs, it is important to be able to provide reliable macro-level statistics of this knowledge base. International bibliographic databases and related bibliometric indicators together provide an analytical framework and appropriate measures to cover both the ‘supply side’—research capabilities and outputs—and ‘demand side’—collaboration, diffusion and citation impact—related to the ICT research. This paper presents results of such a bibliometric study describing macro-level features of this ICT knowledge base. The data were retrieved from a specially developedCWTS ICT Database which provides a broad-scope world-wide coverage of ICT-relevant research papers published in high-quality international scientific and technical journals. The cross-country comparison focuses on the level of scientific output and co-operation patterns of the most actively publishing nations with a focus on the three Triad zones—the European Union, the USA and Japan.

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Abstract  

Scientific cooperation of the EU countries with other developed regions, with Economies in Transition and with Developing Countries is analysed as it is reflected in the bibliometric indicators of internationally co-authored publications. The citation attractivity of these publications shows that international scientific collaboration is particularly advantageous for less advanced countries, but also highly industrialised countries benefit from it.

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