Geothermal energy is the most economical of the green energy resources such as solar or wind. It is a ‘base-load’ type of power, which is constantly available, not just when the sun shines or the wind blows. In Hungary, geothermal energy has proven to be an economical source of energy for direct use. A significant amount of geothermal energy is located throughout Hungary and thermal water (> 30 °C) can be found over 70% of the area of the country. This is supplied mainly from two principal aquifer systems of regional extent. One of them is the clastic Upper Pannonian Quaternary fill of the Pannonian basin, and the other one is the fractured and/or karstified Mesozoic basement. The geothermal situation in Hungary offers two directions for the utilization of geothermal energy. Using the heat from shallow geological sections for heating and cooling buildings; and using thermal sources of low enthalpy thermal waters in several ways (heating and sanitary waters in buildings, greenhouses and aquaculture installations). The potential of geothermal resources and their immediate development should focus on cascade and integrated utilization of geothermal energy. Cascade schemes should be used to fulfil the thermal energy demand for the selected area in order to get the maximum benefit from geothermal energy with the minimum energy demand from heat pumps. The integrated scheme has environmental benefits by using renewable energies (geothermal energy and solar energy), new technologies (heat pumps) and energy savings (cascade scheme). In the long-run, the economic benefits of geothermal power may even exceed those of the fossil fuels. It would likely prove to be a sustainable low-cost source of power. Exploitation of geothermal energy will have a direct impact on the development of the regions, by increasing per capita income and at the same time raising the inhabitants’ standard of living.
A kutatás alapja az a feltételezés, hogy a paneles lakótelepek komplex megújítása városépítészeti léptéket követel, melyben az épületek földszintjei, a külső és belső térkapcsolatok újraértelmezése kiemelt fontosságú. A problémakör feltárása a hazai nagypaneles épületek földszintjeinek építészeti kialakítására épül. A cikk a rendelkezésre álló katalógusok alapján egyrészt a talajközeli térhatár (zárt, áttetsző vagy árkádos), másrészt a nyílások (bejárati ajtó, lakásablak, erkély, kapu, kirakat, közös tér ablaka, gépészeti nyílás, átjáró) tipológiáját állítja fel. Ezt a lakó és látogató számára fontos alsó szintet — a tömegterméket, a paneleket tartó, viszonylag sokféle, az adott helyhez is alkalmazkodó fundamentumot — nemcsak a panelházak építési korában, de az elmúlt évtizedek felújításai során is elhanyagolták. A műszaki vagy látványmegoldások alig érintik, így az épített környezetből a használatot terhelő problémák, mint például a rossz szubjektív biztonságérzet, a találkozások tereinek kerülése, az alulhasznosítottság stb. megmaradnak. Az írás a panelföldszintek építészeti megoldásainak összefoglalását adja, rávilágít az ezekből adódó használati problémákra, felhívja a figyelmet a témakör kiemelt kezelésének fontosságára.
Authors:D. Das, Sumit Kumar, P. Pathak, B. Tomar, and V. Manchanda
Release of long-lived radioactivity to the aquatic bodies from various nuclear fuel cycle related operations is of great environmental
concern in view of their possible migration into biosphere. This migration is significantly influenced by various factors
such as pH, complexing ions present in aquatic environment and sorption of species involving radionuclides on the sediments
around the water bodies. 241/243Am are two major radionuclides which can contribute a great deal to radioactivity for several thousand years. In the present
study, 241Am sorption on natural sediment collected from site near a nuclear installation in India, has been investigated under the
varying conditions of pH (3–10) and ionic strength [I = 0.01–1 M (NaClO4)]. The sorption of Am increased with pH of the aqueous medium [10% (pH 2) to ~100% (pH 10)], which was explained in terms
of the increased negative surface charge on the sediment particles. There was marginal variation in Am(III) sorption with
increased ionic strength (within error limits) of the aqueous medium suggesting inner-sphere complexation/sorption process.
Sediment was characterized for its elemental composition and structural phases using Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) and
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Zeta-potential measurement at I = 0.1 M (NaClO4) suggested that Point of Zero Charge (pHPZC) was ~2, indicating the presence of silica as major component in the sediment. Kurabtov plot using sorption data as a function
of pH at fixed I = 0.1 M (NaClO4) indicated the presence of multiple Am(III) species present on the surface. Potentiometric titration of the suspension indicated
the presence of mineral oxide like behavior and assuming a generic nature (≡XOH) for all types of surface sites, protonation–deprotonation
constants and total number of sites have been obtained. The sorption data has been modeled using 2-pK Diffuse Double Layer
Surface Complexation Model (DDL-SCM). ≡XOAm2+ has been identified as the main species responsible for the sorption profile.
Authors:H. Han, W. Cho, U. Park, Y. Hong, and K. Park
The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) completed the High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) in 1995 and the radioisotope production facilities(RIPF) in 1997. Many devices and handling tools were developed and applied for the production of radioisotopes. Emphasis on RI production plan was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, the development of new radiation sources for industrial use and the steady production of selected radioisotopes. The selected items are 166Ho-based pharmaceuticals, fission 99Mo/99mTc generators, and products of 131I and 192Ir and 60Co sources for industrial use. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (131I, 99mTc, 166Ho, 192Ir, 60Co etc.) and labeled compounds including 99mTc cold kits. Newly developed therapeutic agents are a 166Ho-chitosan complex for liver cancer treatment, a 166Ho patch for skin cancer treatment and devices such as the stent and balloon for the prevention against restenosis of the coronary artery. Feasibility studies on the installation of a 99mTc generator loading facility and on 60Co production for food irradiation were finished. The 192Ir sealed source assembly for NDT has been supplied to domestic users since May 2001. The fission moly process, separation process of non-sealed sources (125I, 33P, 89Sr, 153Sm, 188Re) and fabrication process of sealed sources (169Yb, 75Se) are also under development. For the quality assurance of our final products, we obtained ISO certification in 2000. We are carrying out a feasibility study on a new research reactor for the stable supply of radioisotopes in Korea.
The present paper evaluates the results of field experiments conducted during two consecutive growth seasons (2008–2009) to assess the environmental impact of cement dust pollution on foliar physiology (pigments), growth performance and yield of three commonly cultivated vegetable crops, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), radish (Raphanus sativus) and knol-khol (Brassica oleracea var. gongyloides) in Kashmir Himalayan valley, India. Two experimental sites (S1, S2) were selected in the vicinity of the cement factory at Khrew, Pulwama (Kashmir) at a distance of 0.5 km (S1) and 2 km (S2) and compared with a dust free control site (S3) located at about 6 km from the factory in a crosswind direction. The data revealed that cement dust had an adverse effect on morphological and biochemical characteristics of the crops. Differential level of crop sensitivity to cement dust was markedly evident. Knol-khol (Brassica oleracea var. gongyloides) reflected a higher degree of tolerance to particulate emissions as compared to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and radish (Raphanus sativus). Photosynthetic pigment analysis showed adverse impact on chlorophyll-a, while chlorophyll-b marginally decreased in the leaves of tomato plants at S1; the effect being non-significant for the other test crops. Carotenoids also exhibited a remarkable reduction due to cement dust impact. The yield of tomato recorded severe losses (12.28–23.95%) as compared to radish (7.46–21.4%), while the effect was non-significant in knol-khol. Other growth and yield related attributes also followed a similar trend; tomato and radish showing remarkable effects in response to cement dust and knol-khol showed the least effect. The soil characteristics indicated significant reduction in available P. Except available N, other variables (pH, conductivity, available K, exchangeable Ca and Mg) recorded higher values in the polluted soils as compared to control. The need for installation of appropriate devices in cement manufacturing factories to combat the emission of dust in ambient environment together with environmental monitoring of agro-ecosystems is stressed.
Authors:Jiunn-Liang Lin, Ai-Yih Wang, Jiunn-Guang Lo, and Ren-Shyan Liu
Lipiodol has excellent retainable ability in hepatoma cells. This agent can be labeled with radioisotope (131I) and mixed with tissue adhesive (Histoacryl), and then alttached on the lesion of liver by intrahepatic arterial administration.
In this study, we attempt to obtain the optimal ratio of Lipiodol to Histoacryl and evaluate the consolidation of blood in
vitro and toxicity and biodistribution in vivo. The ratio of131I Lipiodol/Histoacryl mixture (L/H), concentration of heparin and flow rate of blood are varied by simulating the installation
of bloodstream to test the time of consolidation. In addition, the optimal ratios of the L/H mixtures are assessed in vitro
in heparinized human blood. According to those results, Lipiodol and Histoacryl mixed with 1∶1 or 2∶1 ratio have an ideal
time of 13 to 15 seconds in vitro; in addition, 1.2∶1 ratio is an optimal ratio in the biodistribution study. Interestingly,
heparin and acetic acid does not alter the consolidation time, in addition, no variation occurs when varying the flow rate
of blood. The consolidation of L/H mixture with blood is incubated in the 37°C, normal saline bath for 24 hours. No dissociation
of free131I is found. The optimal mixture is also injected into the hepatic artery of the Sprague-Dawley rats carrying for 24 hours.
No dissociation of free131I is found. The optimal mixture is also injected into the hepatic artery of the Sprague-Dawley rats carrying hepatocellular
carcinoma (NIS1 cell line). Radioactive consolidate is well confined in the tumor without evidence of leakage of the mixture
to the lung or distribution of free131I in the thyroid. In conclusion, this mixture has the merits of both irradiation and embolization of the tumor. The131I Lipiodol/Histoacryl mixture (1.2∶1) is a promising alternative for intrahepatic arterial administration to treat hepatic
tumors. Histoacryl can confine the131I and, also, embolize the tumor vessels.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) plans the installation of an International Monitoring System (IMS) based upon four global networks. Seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound waves will help detect underground, underwater and atmospheric nuclear tests and will permit their discrimination from natural events. 80 particulate stations will detect radioactive aerosols, this network being completed with a sub-set of 40 stations which will measure rare gases, typically xenon isotopes. 16 IMS laboratories will perform additional analysis mainly by gamma-spectrometry, using the most sensitive methods such as particulate analysis. In order to have the most effective network, modeling was performed by using an inverse method in which the radioactive tracer is transported back from detectors. Examples will be given, regarding the maps of detection probability, background effects of existing xenon or radon, or the decoupling effects. All these tools and means are anticipated to have a complete process of certification, authentication of the data and discrimination capabilities between nuclear test and releases from civilian nuclear industry (reactors, reprocessing plants,). If a State Party identifies events that it feels could be a nuclear explosion, it can ask for clarification and finally it may send a request for an On-Site Inspection. The rights of the State Party and the constraints for the Inspection Team are defined in the Treaty. That leads to limited time, to limited number of inspectors on the site and to precise methods to be authorized. The means and resulting data have to be blinded in order to make sure the confidentiality is observed. Examples of restricting measurements will be given regarding airborne or vehicle mounted spectrometry as well as laboratory analysis. Cooperation with international organizations (WMO, WHO) will be discussed, depending on confidentiality issues.
Ciobanu , G. – Borza , I. 2002a . Dicţionar englez–român cu termeni din domeniul instalaţiilor pentru construcţii .[English–Romanian Dictionary – Building Installations]. Timişoara: Editura Orizonturi Universitare
A sztereotaxiás agyi sugársebészeti eljárás, mint non-invazív lokális kezelési mód a múlt század második felében jelent meg az intracerebralis elváltozások terápiás palettáján. Eredetileg a funkcionális jellegű kórképek gyógyítására dolgozták ki, ezek gyógyszerelésének fejlődésével azonban a klinikai igény egyre inkább a patomorfológiai céltérfogatok kezelése felé tolódott el. A közlemény áttekinti az indikációk történeti változásait, a hazai sugársebészet kialakulását, módszereit, eredményeit és perspektíváját. Hazánkban a jelzett időszak alatt 5 intézetben összesen 2565 beteget kezeltek sztereotaxiás sugársebészeti eljárással: 52%-ot agyi áttét, 29,5%-ot benignoma, 12%-ot arteriovenosus malformatio, 6%-ot primer malignus agytumor miatt, és 0,5%-ot funkcionális okok miatt. Összességében 86%-os helyi választ, az áttéteseknél RPA 1. oszt.-ban 24 hónap, RPA 2-nél 8,5 hónap, RPA 3-ban pedig 3,4 hónap medián túlélést jelentettek. Ezek az eredmények kiállják az összehasonlítást az irodalomban közöltekkel. Az orvosi szemlélet változása és a jobban megszervezett betegutak hatására a sztereotaxiás agyi sugársebészet remélhetőleg hazánkban is elfoglalja helyét a mindennapi rutinban.