The paper highlights the various aspects of the electronisation of judicial and extra-judicial dispute resolution in the Slovak Republic. The author concludes that arbitration as a form of dispute settlement process may take an electronic form in Slovakia, with the exception of issuing the arbitration decisions which must always take a paper form – for the sake of legal certainty. An alternative dispute resolution in consumer disputes, taking the form of mediation is a novelty in Slovakia and was only introduced in 2016, under the respective EU Regulation. This also foresaw an electronic platform to facilitate online cross-border consumer dispute resolution. Finally, the recently introduced new rules on civil judicial procedure in Slovakia (1st July 2016) also brought about some enhancements with regard to electronisation of dispute resolution. In addition to the possibilities of filing electronic submissions, hearings can also take place with the use of electronic means; public notices must be published on a website of a court or relevant authority and the delivery of court documents was also widely electronised based on a recent Act on e-Government.
Authors:M. Galamboš, M. Daňo, O. Rosskopfová, F. Šeršeň, J. Kufčáková, R. Adamcová, and P. Rajec
One of the basic prerequisites for the use of bentonite as engineering barrier in deep geological repositories for radioactive
waste and spent nuclear fuel is their stability against ionizing radiation stemming from radionuclides present in radioactive
waste and spent nuclear fuel. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in the adsorption properties of selected Slovak
bentonites in relation to uranium fission products (137Cs and 90Sr), prior to and after irradiation of bentonites with a 60Co γ-source and specifying the changes in the structure of Slovak bentonites induced by γ-radiation. The changes in irradiated
natural forms of Slovak bentonites and the changes in their natrified analogues and fractions with different grain sizes were
studied from five Slovak deposits: Jelšový potok, Kopernica, Lastovce, Lieskovec and Dolná Ves. The EPR spectra of bentonites
from deposits Jelšový potok and Lieskovec with absorbed doses of 104 and 105 Gy γ-rays showed no changes in the structure of the studied Slovak bentonites. The changes, which in terms of structure destabilization
can be considered insignificant, occurred only in bentonites with absorbed doses of γ-radiation as much as 1 MGy. The absorbed
dose of 1 MGy γ-radiation did not have an effect on the adsorption of cesium on every studied bentonite. Changes that can
also be regarded as insignificant occurred only during strontium adsorption, especially on Fe–bentonite from deposit Lieskovec
and Ca–Mg–bentonite from deposit Jelšový potok, when an increase in the adsorption capacity occurred. Attention should be
paid in further research of this topic which would require carrying out experiments on bentonite samples with absorbed doses
higher by several orders of magnitude.
Authors:Miroslava Kačániová, Simona Pavličová, P. Haščík, G. Kociubinski, Vladimíra Kńazovická, M. Sudzina, Janka Sudzinová, and Martina Fikselová
As the honey-bee gastrointestinal tract microflora and pollen are the primary sources for the honey microbial community, the aim of this work was to study and characterize the microbial transit among them. Therefore, an exhaustive microbial analysis of honey, adult honey-bee gastrointestinal tract, and pollen from different Slovakian regions and different seasons, was conducted. Microbial screening revealed that the primary sources of microbial community present in Slovakian honey are pollen and the honey-bees’ digestive tract microflora, containing microorganisms normally present in dust, air and flowers. We found that the digestive tract of Slovakian adult honey-bees is highly populated by anaerobic, rather than aerobic bacteria, where coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci,
sp., microscopic fungi and yeast were found. Interestingly, statistical differences were found between the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of summer and winter bees. Pollen revealed the presence of mesophil anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, coliforms and microscopic fungi. Among these, the most representative genera were
. In honey the counts of total anaerobic and total aerobic bacteria, that of coliforms, enterococci, bacilli, microscopic fungi and yeasts were monitored. Most frequently microscopic fungi belonging to genera
Ion exchange isotherms have been measured and plotted for the uptake of cesium, barium, cobalt, zinc, silver and amonium onto
clinoptilolite- and mordenite-rich tuffs of Slovakian origin selectively for both the natural and near homoionic Na form as
well, using the radioanalytical determination. The higher quality clinoptilolite-rich tuff has been proven to be effective
for a potential radionucleides removal in native form according to the following selectivity sequence: Ag+,Ba2,Cs+>NH4+>Co2+, while parent tuff in Na exchanged variety exhibited a little different sequence according to: Ag+ > NH4+ > Ba2+ > Cs+. The raw and Na exchanged mordenite-rich tuffs proved subsequently more or less similar selectivity : Ag+ > Zn2+ > Cs+, Ba2+ > Co2+ and Ag+ > Zn2+.
Authors:J. Balković, J. Kollár, V. Šimonović, and H. Žarnovićan
Aluminium as a growth limiting factor has been recognized for many years. At high concentrations, aluminium (Al) ions reduce nutrient availability in soils, harm plant cells and thus inhibit plant growth. In addition, Al concentration may be a major factor filtering species composition on acid soils in favour of Al-resistant plants. In this study we analyse species responses and turnover along soil pH and Al gradients and we attempt to interpret the results with respect to the recognised aluminium solubility patterns. Plant community and soil data collected from mesophilous and acidophilous submontane broad-leaved forests of Western Slovakia were used for this purpose. Topsoil horizons were analysed for soil reaction (pH), organic carbon and extractable total aluminium. Species responses to the Al measurements were analysed and tested using CCA and the Huisman-Olff-Fresco (HOF) model. We calculated species turnover by accumulating the first derivatives of all HOF response curves, and interpreted them with respect to the Al solubility pattern observed in the soil dataset. We also performed a bioindication experiment to test how a species assemblage indicates the aluminium gradient. In total, 81% of species shows a significant response to the soil Al gradient. We identified that a rapid retreat of many species and, in consequence, high compositional turnover (ecotone) corresponded with a discontinuity in Al solubility observed at 130 mg Al kg−1 (pH 3.8). Here, the exchangeable Al became increasingly under-saturated with respect to the equilibrium attained at higher pH. This discontinuity was also visible in the bioindication experiment, where the prediction algorithm operated better at the acidic end of the gradient. The results indicate that the studied plant assemblages respond sensitively to soil Al solubility. Changes in aluminium solubility in soils correspond with ecotone between adjacent types of vegetation.
This paper deals with the publication and research of Ukrainian folklore on the pages of Ukrainian periodicals in Slovakia in the period from the mid-40’s of the 19th century to the present time. It presents the basic topics and issues under review as well as the names of the authors. It also reveals the importance of Ukrainian periodicals for the development and preservation of national and cultural identity of the Ukrainian minority in Slovakia.
The article offers an introduction to the genealogical method for anthropologists who have carried out, carry out, or want to carry out fieldwork in Gypsy/Roma settlements, especially in Eastern Slovakia. In the first part we present the reader with a history of the genealogical method since it was formally established by W.H. R. Rivers and its application in sociocultural anthropology. In the second part we focus on particularities of the application of this method during fieldwork in Gypsy/Roma settlements using empirical data from fieldwork in Eastern Slovakia.