It is necessary, from the present, to broach yet again the situation of literary studies from a comparativist perspective,
to attend to possible disciplinary crises in the face of the increase in communications, in the incidence of accelerating
transportation – with and without displacements. We would have to consider the literalness of a worldwide metaphor (gr. igtransportls
and indisplacementl.), globalization as a metaphor that displaces itself across continents and contents, and also its incidence
in the course of literary events and humanities. iuTransportationlěę, real or virtual, literal or figurative, tends to narrow
differences, assimilating them to a greater semblance, englobing everything in one and the same vision. If more than one poet
lamented in the face of the sparse ancestral repertoire of metaphors: ieWhy on earth should poets all over the world, and
all over time, be using the same stock metaphors? How shall we formulate the question today, when one metaphor englobes all
Scientific literature is expected to contain a body of knowledge that can be indexed and retrieved using references and citations.
References are subtexts which refer to a supertext, that is, the body of scientific literature. TheScience Citation Index has provided an electronic representation of science at the supertextual level by aggregating the subtextual citations. As
the supertext, however, becomes independently available in virtual reality (as a “hypertext”), subtext and supertext become
increasingly different contexts. The dynamics of hyperlinks are expected to feedback on the system of indexing, referencing,
and retrieval at the level of research practices. References can be considered as part of the retention mechanism of this
evolving system of scientific communication, and citations are a codified form of referencing.
The outbreak of war is generally thought to shift the fields in which research is conducted. As a result, military conflict has historically been credited with being the catalyst which has caused decisive technological advances. It is also generally suggested that warfare has a systematic impact on the intensity of inventive activity. Most scholars have claimed that wars increase inventiveness, although a few argue that conflict is a hinderance to research. This question has not received extensive empirical examination. Using United States data, we show that a basic pattern is repeatedly observed. Immediately after the outbreak of a war, there is a significant decline in inventiveness, which is followed by a marked surge. The average net result is a virtual negation of the two trends.
In my paper I shall investigate the major changes in the concept of the national theatre from the early debates on the Hamburg Theatre in 1767 until the 2005 establishment of the National Theatre of Scotland. The starting assumption is that while in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the notion of the national theatre was regarded as a means for the integration of a nation or even an empire in most Western-European countries, in Eastern-Europe, the debates on and later the realization of the national theatres took place within the context of and against oppressive imperiums. In Eastern Europe, the realization of National Theatre was utilised for representing a unified nation in a virtual way, and its role was to maintain national identity and national culture. In present day Scotland, however, the notion of the national theatre has changed again as the National Theatre is used to represent a diverse and multicultural Scotland.
The present study was aimed at examining the degree of saturation of antibody in immunoassay. The results show that in equilibrium type immunoassay antibody is not fully occupied by antigen at any virtual point of the calibration curve since antibody saturation would lead to B/F=0. Calculations suggest that in an immunoassay meeting the condition p*
0 both relationships between antigen (p) and antibody (q) concentrations can be found (i.e. p<q; p>q). This is probably generally valid for any assay independently of the experimental technique and tracer used when a fixed amount of binder (antibody, receptor, etc.) is used for the analysis of a binding substance (antigen, ligand, etc.), and the proportion of their interaction is evaluated. Also, the appropriateness of the terms saturation analysis and limited and/or excess reagent assay for immunoassay is discussed.
It has long been recognized that the contribution of bracing, cladding may be included in the design of steel frameworks. On the other hand, — due to the very sophisticated interaction between frames and bracing, cladding — the theoretical solutions need experimental, numerical verification.The Laboratory of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Budapest in 1976–81 carried out theoretical and experimental investigations on full-scale simple elastic-plastic frames. Our goal is to help the design and refurbishment of structures by comparing the experimental results to the results of the virtual structure, modeled by a finite element software.This time we focus on a horizontally displaced building section consisting of three frames, that was retracted with the use of the cross bracing of the end-frame. Some problems of modeling will be presented.
Moving text into e-space has thus far taken as many steps backward as it has forward, largely because the paradigm of the
printed book has served as a blinder that keeps us from seeing possible new ways of writing—something nowhere more obvious
than in nonfiction. After looking at a few examples of such failures of imagination, including an internet-only scholarly
publication that fails to take advantage of virtual textuality, this essay first notes some nonfictional genres and modes
after which it looks the relations between fiction and nonfiction as literary forms. Next, it suggests new methods of argumentation
made possible by computer-based textuality. The largest part of this essay then explores three new forms: the blog as the
electronic translation of the journal, the hypertext essay, and the Ulmerian mystory.
Internet is not just communication and information, it is also culture. Internet is a global space which allows for what is
local. This brings about what we might call glocalization, a fact which justifies considering digital literature taking into account only those works which have been conceived of
and written in Spanish. Some of the characteristics attributable to digital literature—collective experimentation and the
rupture of narrative linearity—are exemplified in literary stories from the collective and experimental Hispanic novel. In
addition, we can avail of certain instances of pioneer digital literary works written in Spanish, in which a number of specific
qualities can be found to be based on the texts’ virtual nature itself. In the present study, an original approach to these
works is presented in relation to three reading pathways: linear, helicoid and rhizomatic.
marketplaces often suffer from the low level of liquidity. Attracting members
is critical, however, not even a sound and efficient IT and logistic
background is enough to convince both the supplier and the customer side. In
this paper the authors present the case study of Sunbooks Ltd. This venture
has started to transform the Hungarian book trade market that suffers from
serious deficiencies in field of information and material flow. Despite the
vast investments and that the marketplace is prepared to serve the whole
Hungarian book industry, the market share started to grow very slowly. The
authors identify three contingency factors which can be accounted for the
evolution dynamics of this virtual network. They explain how the business model
is subjected to the evolution of market characteristics, and how the third
factor, the “soft issues” determine the evolution opportunities even in a
supporting market situation.