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Seed germination response of black nightshade to hormones, osmotic potential, salt stress, pH and burial depth was investigated in laboratory and green house. Adding the concentration of GA3 increased seed germination to 99% at the treatments of 25, 200 and 400 ppm. Seed germination decreased as concentration of cytokinin increased from 0.1–5 mM. Wet and dry prechilling duration increased seed germination of black nightshade. Germination of black nightshade seeds decreased as ethanol concentrations increased from 0.3 to 30%. A significant decline in germination was observed by increasing in NaCl concentration. Germination of black nightshade seed significantly decreased as the osmotic potential declined. Seed germination was observed over a broad range of pH. Seedling emergence was the greatest for seeds scattered on the soil surface and decreased by increasing in planting depth.

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The testament of the Hungarian calligrapher George Bocskay (†1575) has been recently discovered in the Archive of the Benedictine Archabbey of Pannonhalma. Bocskay made his will on the 4th of April 1575, in the house of the Hungarian magnate János Pethő de Gerse (III) in Vienna. The original document published here was written in Latin. The new data provided by the testament are of primary importance regarding the life and social network of George Bocskay. According to the text he left his property to his wife and children as well as his four servants, among others he bequeathed his books and instruments of calligraphy to his son, Stephen. His burial place was unknown yet. However, in his testament Bocskay ordered to be buried in the Himmelpfortkloster in Vienna. It was a significant medieval Premonstratesian cloister, founded for nuns by Constance of Hungary, the daughter of the Hungarian King Béla III, in the 1230s.

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Medieval ceramics of San Potito. After the abandonement of the imperial villa (ca. in the last third of the 3rd century AD), the settlement moved up to the nearby hill. The castle of San Potito was first mentioned in 1074. However, the burial place remained in the valley and a church was also built there. This religious building was deserted long before 1653.On the territory of the former villa 197 pottery sherds could be identified as medieval, dating from the 9th to the 15th centuries AD. They attest to a small population, but also illustrate the quite far reaching trading connections of San Potito, related to the vicinity of the Via Valeria, the main road between Rome and Corfinium.

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L’Oppidum de Bibracte (Mont Beuvray, France) Bilan de 10 Annees de Recherches (1996–2005)

Sous la Direction de Laurent Dhennequin, Jean-Paul Guillaumet, Miklós Szabó

Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Philippe Barral, Erica Camurri, Beatrice Cauuet, Felix Fleischer, Jörg Frase, Benjamin Girard, Katherine Gruel, Gilles Hamm, Ralph Hoppadietz, Isabelle Jouffroy-Bapicot, Thierry Luginbühl, François Meylan, Fabrice Monna, Fabienne Olmer, Christophe Petit, Herve Richard, Sabine Rieckhoff, Rosa Roncador, Dániel Szabó, Calin Tamas, Lőrinc Timár, Otto-H. Urban, Daniele Vitali, and Mattias Wöhrl

This article contains the results of 10 years of research in the Gaulish oppidum of Bibracte between 1996 and 2005. It discusses the thematic developed in Centre archéologique européen of Bibracte in this period. It concerns the natural and human environment, the organisation of the oppidum and the political and economic structures.The palaeoenvironmental analyses have demonstrated the strong impact of human activities, namely of paleometallurgy, on the natural environment. The understanding of the inner organisation of the oppidum has been enriched by the study of the fortifications, the burials, the workshop and residential areas and the public buildings. The greatest result was the uncovering of a basilica complex of a Roman republican style in the centre of the settlement (between 50 and 30 BC). Finally, the study of the finds has contributed to determination of the phases and the chronology of the settlement.*

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Absztrakt:

1990 és 2007 között Semmelweis Ignác nyolcadik tanszékvezetői utódjaként a Baross utcai Női Klinikán döntően a nagy felfedezéshez szükséges feltételek szerencsés összetalálkozása, reménytelen küzdelmei, halálának körülményei, négyszeri kihantolása és ötszöri temetése, névmagyarosítása és a vele kapcsolatos tudatos vagy véletlen tévedések foglalkoztattak. Megemlékezésemben a nagy elődre vonatkozó élményeimet és tapasztalataimat foglalom össze. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(26): 1071–1078.

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Abstract  

Late-Quaternary material of various rodent species remnants (lower jaws and teeth) of different depth and age burials from zoogenic deposits in karstic cavities of the Urals (Russia) has been analyzed by thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Exothermic peaks position and shape as well as quantitative values of mass loss and heat effects (especially parameters of organic matter combustion at 200–600 °C) were found to vary significantly depending on bone’s age and fossilization conditions. On the basis of correlation between bone organic component and corresponding concentrations of some trace elements, three different types of fossilization had been proposed. The obtained values of the organic contents in the bone remnants of similar type and location were used to identify different age admixtures as well as chronologically systematize large sample collections.

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Abstract

Stable C isotope studies of the soil organic matter (SOM) have delineated areas with histories of vegetation change from C3 forest to C4 maize (Zea mays L.) agriculture and back to the contemporary C3 forest. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine if land around El Kinel, Guatemala possessed a vegetative history of shifts from C3 forest to C4 maize agriculture in the past, (2) determine if 10 years of contemporary maize production is sufficient time to deposit an isotopic signature of C4 plants in the root zone (top 40 cm), and (3) to examine the extractable phosphorus concentrations and δ13C in soils of important archaeological features that included a midden, a burial, and two ancient reservoirs (aguadas). The lack of a shift in δ13C greater than 3.5‰ in the top 40 cm of the contemporary maize field suggested that continual maize cultivation of more than ten years is required to create an isotopic signature for maize agriculture. Carbon isotopic evidence was found in soil profiles to confirm that long-term agriculture was practiced by ancient Maya farmers at El Kinel. The man-made aguadas did not show isotopic shifts greater than 2.3‰ in any part of the profile, indicating they were used for other purposes not associated with C4 plant growth. The relatively low P (<30 mg kg−1) was found in soil at the same depth but at a distance of 30 cm from an ancient burial. The high P concentration (127 mg kg−1) found within millimeters of the bones implied that the P enrichment came from the remains but P remained fixed in the soil and did not migrate.

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Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar.

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Abstract

The parish church of Turócszentmárton (Martin, Slovakia) was the main burial place of the Szklabinya and Blatnica lines of the Révay family in the 16–17th centuries. The members of the Hungarian aristocratic family who were buried here were the hereditary holders of the ispán's and chief ispán's offices in Turóc county (lat. perpetuus et supremus comes comitatus Turociensis). Few original funerary monuments survive in the church: there is a single figural tombstone (Ferenc Révay I, †1553) and a painted and gilded funeral coat of arms (Pál Révay I, †1635). The funeral arms of crown guard Péter Révay (†1622) is only known from archive photos, and the only information about the funeral banners is gleaned from collections of inscriptions especially from a collection discovered in the last time in the manuscriptcollection of the University Library in Bratislava. Ferenc Révay's effigy in relief shown in secular attire is rare in the sepulchral art of the Hungarian Kingdom (two analogies are propalatine i.e. a chief justice of the Hungarian Kingdom, Imre Czobor of Czoborszentmihály's tombstone [†1581] in Sasvár [Šaštín] and László Kubinyi's [†1598] in Galánta [Galanta]), but the funeral coats of arms fit in well with pieces found in Nagyszombat (Trnava), Lőcse (Levoča), Csetnek (Štítnik), etc.

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The paper offers a brief survey of the excavations and conservation of the ruins of the medieval provostal church of SzEkesfehErv·r, that took place between 1936 and 1938, in connection with the 900th anniversary of the death of King Saint Stephen I of Hungary, celebrated with large-scale programs in 1938 (the King was the founder of the provostship, which became the place of coronation of the medieval rulers of Hungary, and at the same time the burial-place of Saint Stephen and many of his successors). In this process the art historian Tibor Gerevich, leader of the National Office for the Protection of Historic Monuments played an important role. The building of the so called mausoleum, where the marble sarcophagus from the 11th century, considered as the monument of Saint Stephen was placed in the centre, and a semicircular-arched gallery for the purpose of a lapidary were built on the border of the excavated territory. The buildings were designed by the young architect Géza Lux, in a modest, elegant style referring to the brickwork of some Italian Romanesque churches. The ensemble is an important part of the history of monument protection in Hungary, and at the same time it offers the highest level of the official state architecture of its age.

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