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The application of ultrasound during extraction of oil from apricot kernels using hexane was evaluated and compared with conventional methods (mechanical extraction and Soxhlet extraction). Results show that ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) yields more oil with less solvent consumption. The oil yield from UAE, SE, and ME were 44.72%, 44.33%, and 35.06%, respectively. It is noteworthy that it took 44 min to extract oil by UAE method, while alike yield was obtained from SE in 6 hours. Oil extracted by UAE exhibited significantly higher peroxide and ester values. The functional groups of apricot kernel oil were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Untreated and treated kernel powders were studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the development of microstructures and disruption of cell walls were evaluated. Our study suggests that ultrasound assisted extraction may be an effective method to extract edible oils by achieving higher efficiency in shorter extraction time.

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Conidium production was significantly reduced in three independent ΔFvMAT1-2-1 gene disruption mutants of F. verticillioides as compared to the wild type parental strain, when fungi were incubated on carrot agar either under diurnal illumination conditions or in total darkness. The conidiation specific con10 gene was expressed constitutively at low levels in the wild type strain, whereas levels of con10 transcripts were drastically reduced in the the ΔFvMAT1-2-1/M15 mutant. These findings demonstrate that mutants, lacking the functional mat1-2-1 mating type gene have lost not only their sexual reproduction capability, but became also retarded in asexual sporulation indicating that mating type genes have positive functions during the asexual phase of the fungal life cycle.

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Calmodulin is a ubiquitous Ca2+-binding protein, which has numerous functions in cell biology, including cAMP-dependent signal transduction and cell division. Drugs with a phenothiazine ring system have been used for decades in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses, and their anticancer potential has been reported. Here we present the first evidence for the disruption of normal insect development by low doses of two typical phenothiazines, chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine, admi­nis­ter­ed via a semi-synthetic diet to larvae of the cotton leaf worm (Spo­dop­tera littoralis; Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest of various crops. At 0.3 percent trifluoperazine in the diet the development of the larvae to the adult stage was completely prevented. In view of their mo­derate toxicity to vertebrates, including humans, and in view of the availa­bi­lity of numerous phenothiazine drugs at reasonable costs, agricultural appli­cations of phenothiazines appear possible.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Marie Dufresne, Theo Lee, Sarrah M’Barek, X. Xu, X. Zhang, Taiguo Liu, Wenwei Zhang, Gert Kema, Marie-Josée Daboussi, and Cees Waalwijk

Transposon mutagenesis was applied to generate mutants in Fusarium graminearum . The mimp1/impala system originally identified in F. oxysporum proved very promising for mutagenesis as the transposon and reinserted at high frequency in (the vicinity) of genes. A collection of mutants was screened for growth, for pathogenicity and for perithecia production. Several mutants blocked in one or more functions were obtained. The wild-type phenotype of one such mutant could be restored by complementation with a non-disrupted copy of the gene. In addition reinsertions occurred on each of the four chromosomes of F. graminearum , making this system a powerful tool in the functional analyses of the > 10,000 genes predicted in the F. graminearum genome.

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The Celâlî rebel armies ravaged the central Anatolian countryside from the late 16th up to the mid-17th century. The Celâlî movements brought about demographic changes and had a long-lasting impact on agricultural economy in some regions. Anatolian waqf institutions being dependent on rural taxpayers and agricultural production for their budgets were seriously harmed by the Celâlî rebellions. This paper examines the Celâlî effect through the Waqf of Hatuniyye which had villages scattered across central Anatolian districts. The waqf fell into a deep financial crisis and its regular functioning was disrupted in the early 17th century. The waqf finance was unable to recover for decades after the crisis, which indicates that rural economy in waqf villages suffered from a perpetual production and population crisis.

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Abstract

Coronary thrombosis and secondary embolization remain two of the major challenges of intervention in myocardial infarction. Pharmacological dissolution as well as instruments to evacuate the thrombotic mass with or without distal protection have been applied in the acute interventions with variable degrees of success. With time, cross-linking of the fibrin strands results in a resilient, partially organizing coagulate that is more or less attached to the wall of the artery. The currently used devices designed to cope with recently formed thrombus may fail to disrupt these flexible structures, and pharmacological dissolution is also usually ineffective. Here, we report a case with a subacute occlusion; after failure of thrombus extraction, mechanical comminution of a clot with cutting balloons was successfully performed.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Mrevlishvili, M. Sottomayor, M. Ribeiro da Silva, T. Mdzinarashvili, M. Al-Zaza, M. Tediashvili, D. Tushishvili, and N. Chanishvili

Abstract  

Bacterial viruses genome- ds-DNA -expulsion from the phage capsid is induced by temperature and is not accompanied by heat effects (temperature interval 45–75°C). Thus the temperature induced ejection of genetic material from phages is predominantly entropic. ds-DNA output from the capsid increases the viscosity of the phage suspension at least 100 times. ds-DNA output from the capsid is accompanied by a significant change of partial volume. The disruption of 1mg of phage produces ΔV=1.3×10–9 m3 which corresponds to a volume increase of 200%. This produces exothermic heat effects in closed calorimetric cells, with free volume above the measured liquid. This paper deals with the study of the V-group, family T-even, E. Coli bacteria phage (named unphage). According to electron microscopic pictures, the geometrical parameters of this phage are 750×560 Å (from head) and 900 Å (from tail).

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Effects of embelin on oestrous cycle, plasma levels of progesterone and oestradiol, and in vitro production of oestradiol and progesterone by mixed ovarian cells was studied. Forty adult (4 months old) regularly cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of 10 rats each. Groups I and II (controls) were given 1 ml/kg body weight of physiological saline or corn oil (vehicle). Groups III and IV received 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg body weight embelin in corn oil, respectively. Emberlin disrupted the oestrous cycles in Groups III and IV animals, and there was a significant depression in plasma oestradiol (p<0.05) and progesterone (p<0.02) at both 10 and 20 mg/kg body weights, respectively. Isolated mixed ovarian cells from embelin treated rats produced significantly less progesterone and estradiol than controls in vitro. It is concluded that embelin probably interferes with reproductive functions in female rats by suppressing ovarian production of sex steroid hormones.

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This work describes the induction, purification and partial biochemical characterizations of an antimicrobial protein from the housefly larvae induced by ultrasonic wave. It has been purified to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-75, Bio-gel P6 gel filtration, and CM-Sepharose Fast Flow cation exchange chromatography. The protein is a cationic protein with an apparent molecular weight of 16315 Da determined by no-denaturing electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Biochemical profile assays show that this protein has good thermal stability, and repeatedly frozen and defrosted durability. The optimum pH for antimicrobial activity is around pH5. The antimicrobial range of the protein includes Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and some fungi. Results of the membrane permeability assays suggest that the probable mode of action of this protein is membrane-disrupting mechanism.

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The present study focuses on how spatial patch characteristics, such as patch area, shape and isolation, affect the natural species composition of hardwood floodplain forests. The natural species composition is defined according to species groups obtained using phytocoenological methods. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between fragmentation indices and the number and proportion of species in each functional species group stated in this paper. This study is based on a dataset of 118 phytocoenological relevés sampled using the standard methodology of the Zürich-Montpellier School, ordered within the suballiance Ulmenion (mixed oak-elm-ash forests along the great rivers). The study area is situated in Central Europe, in the northern part of the Pannonian biogeographic region. The digital map of hardwood floodplain forests was rasterized to 25 m cell size. The FRAGSTATS software was used to obtain fragmentation indices, and generalised linear models tested the influence of forest patch fragmentation indices on species composition. Our analyses confirm that large hardwood floodplain forests are essential for natural species composition conservation, and that large fragment areas are highly susceptible to non-native species penetration. We also determined that small, compact fragments contain very valuable remnants of well-preserved natural hardwood floodplain forests with a high proportion of specialised Ulmenion species. However, disruption to hardwood floodplain forest natural borders engenders a greater threat to its natural species composition than decline in patch area, because disruption results in increased Shape index, increased contact with the surrounding environment, greater edge effect and a higher proportion of alien species in the forest community.

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