The resurgence of revolutionary literature or Red Classics at the turn of the century is indicative of the cultural logic
of the revolutionary hegemony during Mao and post-Mao China. Revolutionary hegemony served quite effectively to legitimate
Mao Zedong’s, and much of Deng Xiaoping’s reign, but it has become increasingly difficult to sustain its viability and efficacy.
From the beginning of the new century, both the state and consumer popular culture sectors have pushed for a Red Classic resurgence.
While the ideological content and styles of the Red Classics are apparently incommensurable to China’s social reality today,
their current popularity suggests a success in capturing or eliciting emotional responses from the audience primarily derived
from their lived and felt experience during the Mao era. For the state, the Red Classics and the entire revolutionary legacy
can now exist only as mummies of history, serving as a nationalist, “patriotic” narrative of the recent past. Meanwhile, the
Red Classics is reinvented as nostalgia, a commodity in China’s cultural market. The paper examines the genealogy and current
reinvention of the Red Classics, in order to shed some light on China’s post-revolutionary cultural politics.
In answer to the criticism of binary distinctions of the last decades, my theoretical argument in this paper is that on the
cognitive level we are strongly in need of binarism. In my approach binarism is not identical with ontological dualism. It
pertains to world orientation, because without the cognitive tools of differentiation life would be characterized by entropy.
In order to define their place in the world individuals are in continuous search for identity and difference. A following
step is to be vigilant from an ethical perspective not to grant a one-sided value to one of the binary concepts at the expense
of the other. It is the concern of cultural stereotyping which has elicited the criticism of binary distinctions. However,
ethical commitment cannot do without the tools of cognition. Coming to literature, I discuss the binary terms of (historical)
fact and fiction. Analyzing Romain Gary’s La Danse de Gengis Cohn, a satirical Holocaust novel, I want to demonstrate that it is the tension between fact and fiction that allows for ambiguity
and irony, intellectual strategies that go beyond binarism while accepting it as an indispensible cognitive tool.
Authors:J. A. Baptista, P. J. Spencer, J. E. Oliveira, M. S. Casare, and N. Nascimento
In the present work, we investigated the immunological behavior of bothropstoxin-1, a K49 phospholipase from Bothrops jararacussu, and of ovalbumin before and after irradiation with 60Co g-rays. Isogenic mice were immunized with either native or irradiated proteins. The circulating antibodies were isotyped
and titrated by ELISA. Results indicate that irradiated proteins were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were
able to recognize the native proteins in ELISA. Data also indicate that the irradiated protein induced higher titers of IgG2a
and IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells were predominantly involved in the immune response. Structural modifications of the proteins
were investigated by SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography. According to our data, irradiation promoted
structural modifications on both proteins, characterized by higher molecular weight forms (aggregates and oligomers). When
analyzed by mass spectrometry, the irradiated bothropstoxin appeared in several oxidized forms. These results indicate that
irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures, but still retain many of the original
antigenic and immunological properties of native form.
Authors:J. Szarka, O. Toldi, E. Szarka, J. Remenyik, and et al.
The fact that production is often unsuccessful even when resistant varieties are selected on the basis of the hypersensitive reaction can be attributed to the lack of adequate knowledge on plant disease resistance. In addition to specific plant responses to pathogen species, plants also possess an aspecific defense reaction which, instead of causing rapid tissue destruction, is based on the opposite strategy, protecting the plant against attack by microbes through tissue compaction achieved by cell enlargement and cell division. Genetic analyses carried out in pepper revealed that the general defense reaction was inherited as a monogenic recessive trait (gds). Pathophysiological observations indicate that the stimulus threshold is lower and the reaction rate faster than for specific defense reactions. Biochemical analyses suggest that, unlike plants exhibiting rapid tissue destruction, plants containing the gds gene do not require an oxidative burst elicited by hydrogen peroxide to stimulate the defense mechanism. It was also found that the regulation of the general defense system involves metabolic pathways that are independent of salicylic acid. The general and specific plant reactions form an integrated system of plant defense.
Stress alters adaptive behaviors including vigilance behaviors. In Lymnaea one of these vigilance behavior is a heightened withdrawal response to a shadow. The shadow withdrawal response (SWR) is mediated by dermal photoreceptors located primarily on the foot, mantle cavity, and skin around the pneumostome area. Here we asked whether we could obtain a neural correlate of the heightened SWR and other essential behaviors following traumatic stress. We measured the electrophysiological properties of ‘Right Pedal Dorsal 11 (RPeD11)’, the interneuron that plays a major role in mediating the whole-body withdrawal response. In traumatized snails 24 hours after the trauma they responded not only to a shadow stimulus with an augmented withdrawal response, but suppressed in locomotive, feeding and respiratory behavior. Their behavioral change lasted at least one week. Accompanying the behavioral change in these ‘traumatized’ preparations there are a number of significant changes in the neuronal properties of RPeD11 compared to naíve preparations. For example, RPeD11 is significantly more depolarized (∼10 mV) has significantly larger input resistance, and the duration of the response elicited by the shadow persists longer. All these changes result in an increased RPeD11 response and seem to raise their defensive alert level.
This study aims at a new interpretation of the late Rembrandt’s mysterious Self-Portrait with Two Circles at Kenwood House (1665). Former readings of the picture neglected the fact that in this case the work of painting itself became the explicit subject. Both the psychological evocativeness of the personality represented and the “circles” as enigmatic symbols elicited especial interest as they are very much in evidence – and although commentators realized the presence of the brush, palette and mahlstick, practically noone took notice of the work in progress itself, vanishing behind the figure in the grey area of the unusually light background. Following Gary Schwartz I argue that with the two circles Rembrandt refers to the legendary contest of Apelles and Protogenes told by Pliny and Vasari’s famous story about Giotto’s “O” – both stories are about the competence of the painters to understand abstract tracks as signs of artistic skills. By minimizing the iconic difference between the real and the painted canvas, Rembrandt indicates his ambition to be part of the contest of the great painters of the past – by showing himself present as an imaginary person before the imaginary canvas, and, at the same time, by calling attention to the presence of the material tracks of his “rembrandtian” manner, put between the fine tracks of his ancient predecessors, on the real canvas.
Authors:Koji Nonaka, S. Une, N. Tatsuta, K. Ito, and J. Akiyama
We investigated muscle atrophy, major antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, predominantly fast fibers) and soleus (predominantly slow fibers) muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into a control (n = 5) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic group (n = 5). Eight weeks after diabetes induction the EDL and soleus muscles were removed and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels measured. The CAT activity increased in both the EDL and soleus muscles of the diabetic rats (p < 0.01), whereas the GPX and SOD activities were increased only in the EDL muscle (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). The TBARS levels were only increased in the EDL muscle of the diabetic rats (p < 0.01). Both muscles showed significant atrophy but the EDL muscle elicited the greatest atrophy. In conclusion, it appears that adaptive responses to oxidative stress were adequate in the soleus muscle, but not in the EDL muscle, of diabetic rats. Thus fast twitch muscle fibers may be more susceptible to oxidative stress than slow twitch muscle fibers and this may contribute to muscle atrophy under diabetic conditions.
Authors:H. Koshitaka, Michiyo Kinoshita, and K. K. Arikawa
This paper describes the action spectrum of foraging behavior of a butterfly, Papilioxuthus. We first established an experimental protocol to evaluate learning and discrimination of monochromatic light by the butterflies. We trained butterflies to feed on sucrose solution at the window illuminated with certain monochromatic light produced through a monochromator. After confirming that they learned the monochromatic light, after 10 days of training, we tested the butterflies one by one. We presented training wavelengths for each individual at different intensities, and recorded whether they perform foraging behavior under freely-flying as well as tethered conditions. Freely-flying butterflies responded to light by visiting the window and searching for nectar around it, whereas tethered butterflies responded by extending their proboscides towards the window. The light intensity required to elicit 50% response for each tested monochromatic light was plotted. The resulting action spectrum for the visit was rather flat with the maximum sensitivity a 420 nm, whereas the spectrum for the proboscis extension had prominent peaks at 380, 500, and 600 nm. The difference in action spectra indicates that the visit and the proboscis extension are controlled by two independent mechanisms at least in part.
Authors:Nóra Krajcs, L. Márk, K. Elekes, and T. Kiss
Bending, twitching and quivering are different types of tentacle movements observed during olfactory orientation of the snail. Three recently discovered special muscles, spanning along the length of superior tentacles from the tip to the base, seem to be responsible for the execution of these movements. In this study we have investigated the ultrastructure, contractile properties and protein composition of these muscles. Our ultrastructural studies show that smooth muscle fibers are loosely embedded in a collagen matrix and they are coupled with long sarcolemma protrusions. The muscle fibers apparently lack organized SR and transverse tubular system. Instead subsarcolemmal vesicles and mitochondria have been shown to be possible Ca2+ pools for contraction. It was shown that external Ca2+ is required for contraction elicited by high (40 mM) K+ or 10−4 M ACh. Caffeine (5 mM) induced contraction in Ca2+-free solution suggesting the presence of a substantial intracellular Ca2+ pool. High-resolution electrophoretic analysis of columellar and tentacular muscles did not reveal differences in major contractile proteins, such as actin, myosin and paramyosin. Differences were observed however in several bands representing presumably regulatory enzymes. It is concluded that, the ultrastructural, biochemical and contractile properties of the string muscles support their special physiological function.
Authors:F. Kerek, G. Szegli, Lidia Cremer, Andreea-Roxana Lupu, Steliana Durbaca, Ana Calugaru, Aurora Herold, and D. Radu
Influence of the novel arthritis drug-substance MCS-18 on the antibody (Ab) production against tetanus toxoid (TT) and diphtheria toxoid (DT) antigens was tested
. Possible involvement of MCS-18 in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling pathway was further considered.Materials and methods: Immunization of male CD1 mice was done with subcutaneous injection of TT emulsified in Freund’s Complete (FCA) or Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) and mixed diversly with MCS-18 and different test substances. To investigate the influence of TLR activation Pam3Cys and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) emulsified in FIA were tested in combinations with MCS-18. Antibody production was analysed
by tetanus-or diphtheria-toxin neutralization test.Results: Immunogenicity of TT was significantly enhanced if administered together with FCA or TLR agonists Pam3Cys or LPS emulsified in FIA. It was shown that MCS-18 attenuated strongly the production of anti-TT Ab if administered together with the Ab elicitor FCA or TLR agonists in various combinations. MCS-18 was also active via oral administration.Discussion: These findings suggest that MCS-18 could be a potent, non-toxic antagonist or a down-regulator of TLR signalling pathway. Investigations on further models are needed to establish if MCS-18 may influence particularly the production of RA-specific auto-antibodies, too.