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The epical hero is a daring fighter, and very often, behaving as a nonconformist, as he used to break the rules… He is not just an adventurer, but a personality assuming the responsibility of searching life's significance. Novac's Gruia, the hero of a South-East European ballad cycle willingly enters the space where the wild girl lives to fight her and to obtain her as a wife. He cuts the line of the enemies provoking them to fight, in order to demonstrate for the other and for himself that he can challenge his capability. Another hero provokes Frost as God's power and loses his entire army in that competition with a non-human authority. Apart from the hero in the fairy tales, the hero in songs has no miraculous helpers. He is a fighter but not an adventurer. He is a searcher who wants to test the norm by himself. On that coordinates the modern hero of the audio-visual productions related with a new psychological attitude tries to find the reason of his actions but more like an individual who has to be persuaded that the social rules are correct. Frequently the end is dramatic. Breaking the traditional law and the link with the group he is alone from the very beginning and at a disadvantage. When he loses he frequently dies as a tragic hero.

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The Lithuanian “baladeacutes” should be held to be narrative lyrics. Because of a strong lyrical trend in Lithuanian folk poetry, very often they seem to be cases between folksongs and folkballads. An attempt to explain the untragic nature of part of Lithuanian ballad-sujets is done in the article. The cause could be not only the lyrical mood of folk singers or the lack of epic as well as dramatic traditions in Lithuanian singing folklore, but on the great part the answer may be found in the medium those foreign sujets got in. In the oldest strata of Lithuanian ballads the role of mythology is of great importance, the archaic conception of death and love. It is the avoidance of rude cruelty in Lithuanian ballads that causes the absence of certain parts; the structure of sujet becomes obscure, and the inner logic of sujet is ruled out. Dramatical manner of performance is present only sometimes, but not always in Lithuanian ballads. The expression of the individual; traditional occasions to perform ballads; some poetical artificies of Lithuanian ballads; suppositional meaning of some ballads motifs; the classification of Lithuanian ballads as well as their origin is also reviewed shortly in the article.

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The structures, or architectural forms, can be very various. They are independent both as to text and tune, are inconcievable by lyrics or melody taken separately, have nothing to do with the conscious intention or representation of the singers themselves, and are spontaneously actualized during the singing. Due to such immaterial structuring possibilities, and using only the formal possibilities of the syntagmatic, in Romanian traditional/folk singing a single poetic text can receive 64 formal treatments/versions. For establishing the existence of these architectural variants I have started from observations such as the one belonging to Bartók, who noticed that Romanians had the peculiarity of singing the same verse four times. Other observations spoke about tree times repetitions of each verse, while in someother circumstances verses are repeated just once. If we logically establish all possible forms of sytagmatic repetitions we obtain this sum of 64 variants, which constitute the equally real and virtual being of each and any folk song. These structures and architectures were very important to the old, traditional/peasant aesthetics, and their actualization was essential espetially to ceremonial repertories such as Winter-Solstice-Songs (carols). By giving up devices such as verse repetition and stanzaic refrains, and by shortening the time for performing the epic songs of the peasant carol, what was lost was the immaterial aspect of unconscious constructing, the abysmal pleasure for implied mathematics, was lost one of the essences of the sacred experience, which is -as philosophers put it - 'experiencing the Number'.

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Jelen tanulmányban az Apollónios Rhodios Argonautikájának harmadik könyvében ábrázolt Médeia- alak értelmezéséhez kívánunk újabb szemponttal hozzájárulni. Bemutatjuk és elemezzük a hősnőben fellángoló érzelem ábrázolására ható, a klasszikus attikai tragikus hagyományra, elsősorban Euripidésre viszszavezethető motívumokat. Az apollóniosi Médeia-kép lehetséges irodalmi előzményeinek körét Euripidés Phaidra-alakjával kívánjuk gyarapítani (Eur. Hipp. 373–524). Feltárjuk a két hősnőben lelki gyötrelmet okozó érzelem kialakulásának állomásait és mozgatóit, illetve kitérünk néhány további motívumra, melyek szintén erősítik a Hippolytos és az eposz kapcsolatát.

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The expression xuuč yaria can be translated as ‘story’ or ‘gossip’, and indeed, they are short stories about interesting, extraordinary or sometimes fearful events heard or seen by the storyteller. As far as their content is concerned, the stories are colourful and ramifying, and it is beyond doubt that the xuuč yaria has some connections with domogs, tales and even heroic epics. Unfortunately, research into this field has begun relatively recently, so these connections are far from being clear. Moreover, the xuuč yaria stories are interesting not only from the point of view of folklore, but they also shed light on the history of ideas, since the first ones were collected in the 1950s, and thus some of them reflect the political atmosphere of the socialist era. In this article an attempt is made to give the broader outlines of the xuuč yaria as a genre of Mongolian folklore, and establish a typology in the hope that it will be helpful for further research.

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A Statius Achilleis ében olvasható három hajnalleírás (1. 242–5; 1. 819–20; 2. 1–4) szorosan kapcsolódik Achilles „átváltozásaihoz” a műben. E részletek felidézik az Ilias 19. énekét nyitó hajnalt, valamint azt a homérosi metafora- és szimbólumrendszert is, mely a hős harcba való visszatérését a fény, illetve a hajnal érkezéséhez hasonlítja. Különösen összetett kapcsolat fedezhető fel Achilles hőssé való visszaváltozása és a napfelkelte között a harmadik statiusi hajnalleírásban, melyet Achilles mint epikus és mint elégikus hős jövőjének lehetséges előrejelzéseként is értelmezhetünk. Az ugyanitt említett genitor coruscae lucis Iuppiterrel, illetve Diespiterrel azonosítható; a hajnalleírás ezáltal a főisten által az Achilleis ben játszott szerepet is árnyalja.

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A cikk azt a problémát vizsgálja konkrét szöveghely értelmezésével, hogyan teremthet lehetőséget gazdagító új olvasatok megfogalmazására régebbi irodalmi, esztétikai előfeltevéseink felülvizsgálata. Az Aeneis Nisus és Euryalus-epizódjában a szerző egy homérosi ihletésű katonai epizódban az epikus és heroikus világtól (a cikk szóhasználatában epikus kódtól) idegen elemekkel bővíti ki az elbeszélést. A szerelmi elégia nyelve és a görög fiúszerelem fogalma azonban feszültséget hoz a homérosi katonatörténetbe. Ennek eredményeképpen a részletet záró költői megszólalás és maga a történet között az interpretáció szempontjából termékeny feszültség alakul ki. A cikk amellett érvel, hogy ezt a feszültséget nem szabad eltüntetnie az inter pretációnak, helyette az egységesség követelményét érdemes újragondolni.

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Petrarca Argus c. eclogájáról, jóllehet a Bucolicum carmen föltehetőleg legkorábban keletkezett darabja, mindeddig nem született önálló tanulmány. Az eddigi kutatás a mű antik előképei közül szinte kizárólag Vergilius pásztori költészetének hatásával számolt, a föltűnően nagyszámú epikus allúziót, Ovidius, Statius, Claudianus hatását azonban alig vizsgálták, ez az egyoldalúság pedig könnyen vezethet kevéssé helytálló értelmezésekhez. A dolgozat az allúziók alaposabb föltárásával a költemény szerkezetének és igen összetett jelképiségének értelmezésére tesz kísérletet.

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A driving force in Vergil’s Aeneid is the hostility of Juno to the Trojans as they approach, and finally arrive in Italy. The epic in some ways mirrors the opposition encountered by Augustus as the new ruler of Rome. Juno’s opposition to the Trojans has its origin not only in Greek mythology, but in the history of the local peoples of Italy with whom early Romans had to contend. From the outset of the poem she becomes the personification of these opposing forces. Once the Trojans finally reach mainland Italy, she sets in motion a long war, although the one depicted in the Aeneid was not as long as the real wars Romans waged with the Latin League and with the many of the tribes of Italy, including the Veii. The reality of the wars Rome had to contend with are here compared to the relatively brief one depicted in the Aeneid, and the pacification of Juno reflects the merging of the different peoples of Rome with their subjugator.

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Theophanies are a structural element of every religion and are based, partly, on the effort to reinforce the religious credo of believers — the appearance of a god before the eyes of a human proves his existence and his power — and, partly, on the need of humans to reassure their faith, always seeking proofs. Probably the earliest description of a theophany is in the Epic of Gilgamesh but certainly the most impressive is the Homeric narration of the encounter between Athens and Ulysses under a tree, where they talk and laugh like old friends.

However, testimonies of theophanies can be also found on the margin of official religion, in the field of magic. The difference here is that god does not appear voluntarily but is compelled by the power of the magic rituals to reveal himself and serve human desires. In this paper, I intend to unfold the PGM (Papyri Graecae Magicae) collection, and, bearing in mind its magico-religious syncretistic character and the multi-cultural and multi-religious environment of its Greco-Roman Egyptian origin, to describe the magical procedures aimed at the appearance of the god and then to analyze their underlying similarities and compare them with the “official” theophanies, in order to detect repeated motifs, influences or problems.

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