Thermomechanical properties of bread components can be used to characterize various events that have direct rheological impacts. The objective is to observe changes that occur during staling and toughening of a bread or similar products. In this article, characterization of bread polymers, starch and gluten, were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).
Authors:Gy. Gell, K. Kovács, I. Molnár, Zs. Bugyi, S. Tömösközi, and A. Juhász
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are widely used to determine gluten contamination in gluten-free and low gluten food samples. ELISA assays developed using monoclonal antibodies against known toxic peptides have an advantage in the identification of toxic prolamin content in protein extracts of different food samples, as well as raw materials. R5 and G12 monoclonal antibodies specific for two known toxic peptides used in commercially available gluten ELISA assays were applied to test toxic peptide contents in wheat relatives and wild wheat species with different genome composition and complexity. Although the R5 peptide content showed some correlation with ploidy levels in Triticum species, there was a high variance among Aegilops species. Some of the analysed diploid Aegilops species showed extremely high R5 peptide contents. Based on the bioinformatics analyses, the R5 peptide was present in most of the sulphur rich prolamins in all the analysed species, whereas the G12 epitope was exclusively present in alpha gliadins. High variation was detected in the position and frequency of epitopes in sequences originating from the same species, thus highlighting the importance of genotypic variation within species. Identification of new prolamin alleles of wheat relatives and wild wheat species is of great importance in order to find germplasm for special end-use quality purposes as well as development of food with reduced toxicity.
Authors:L.V. Shchukina, T.A. Pshenichnikova, A.K. Chistyakova, E.K. Khlestkina, and A. Börner
Various milling parameters, wet gluten content and key dough properties were analyzed for two sister lines of bread wheat with Ae. markgrafii introgressions in genetic background of cultivar Alcedo carrying a set of sub-chromosomal alien segments on chromosomes 2AS, 2BS, 3BL, 4AL and 6DL. The lines revealed higher grain vitreousness, larger particle size of flour, and higher wet gluten content in grain compared to cv. Alcedo. The flour from these lines also showed excellent water absorption and developed more resilient dough. The introgressions in the Alcedo genome caused no reduction in 1,000-grain weight. General improvement of the grain technological properties appears to be the result of introgressions into 2AS, 2BS and 3BL chromosomes. Coincidence of locations of Ae. markgrafii introgressions in chromosome with the QTLs positions for technological traits, revealed in bread wheat mapping populations, is discussed.
Authors:R. Briones-Martínez, M. Juárez-Juárez, M. Oliver-Salvador, and M. Cortés-Vázquez
DSC was used to study the extent of denaturation of hemisphaericin and mexicain hydrolysates from corn gluten, soybean and
sunflower meals. It was observed that the defatted meals studied exhibited only one broad peak transition. The data obtained
demonstrated that the partial protein denaturation found with hemisphaericin or mexicain is correlated to modifications of
functional properties. The two enzymes display different modes of action, according to the protein source.
Authors:D. Šoronja Simović, N. Filipović, Z. Šereš, J. Gyura, A. Jokić, and B. Pajin
Research on the effects of additives produced from sugar beet is aimed at satisfying the daily intake of dietary fibre in the range of 25–35 g. Bakery products are usually consumed several times a day and this offers the possibility of incorporating dietary fibres from sugar beet. The addition of this additive to white flour can eliminate the negative effect of phytic acid, present in whole-grain cereal products, which inhibits the mineral intake. In the aim to decrease and eliminate adverse effects of sugar beet fibres on dough rheology and bread quality, optimal quantities of shortening and milk powder to the recipes were tested in order to counter addition of balance such effects. The influence of shortening and milk powder on characteristics of dough enriched with fibres (proving time and dough level) and parameters of bread quality (volume and crumb quality) was traced in two groups of samples: first without and second with 5% of added gluten. Applying regression analysis on measured parameters a mathematical model was defined. Based on presented data and regression analysis concerning samples with and without gluten, it can be stated that fibres enriched bread of the best quality can be made with gluten, shortening and milk powder at the level of 5%, 5% and 2%, respectively.
Authors:J. Zhou, W. Liu, C. Han, H. Cao, Y. Xu, W. Zhang, and Y. Yan
Wheat glutenins containing high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) are the major determinants of wheat gluten quality. In this study, the recently developed reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) was used to study the synthesis and accumulation patterns of glutenins during grain development of four Chinese bread wheat cultivars with different gluten quality. Developing grains were collected based on thermal times from 150 °Cd to 750 °Cd at 100 °Cd intervals, and the content of glutenin subunits and their accumulation patterns were determined by RP-UPLC as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that HMW-GS and LMW-GS synthesis were initiated currently at 250 °Cd and they displayed a gradually upregulated expression. All the HMW-GS can be detected at 250 °Cd, earlier than LMW-GS. Different glutenin subunits and genotypes showed clear accumulation diversity during grain development. Particularly, 1Dx5 + 1Dy10 in the cultivar Gaocheng 8901 and Zhongyou 9507 with superior dough properties were accumulated faster at early stages than 1Dx2 + 1Dy12 in Jingdong 8 and Zhengmai 9023 with poor dough quality, suggesting that faster accumulation rate of glutenin proteins at the early stages of grain development may contribute to the formation of superior gluten structure and dough quality.