Solvent extraction of Zn(II) by 2-hexylpyridine (HPy) in benzene has been studied from aqueous mineral acid—thiocyanate media.
The extraction, though dependent on the acidity of the aqueous phase, is poor from mineral acids (HCl, HNO3 or H2SO4). Addition of 0.02M KSCN to the aqueous phase enhances the distribution ratio by a factor of almost one thousand. The stoichiometry
of the extracted complex established by the usual slope analysis method indicates that an ionic type complex, e.g. Zn(SCN)4·(HPyH)2, is responsible for extraction. Complexing anions like acetate, oxalate or citrate at 1 M concentration mask the extraction
of Zn(II) almost completely. Separation factors determined at optimal conditions (0.1M HPy in benzene −0.05M H2SO4+0.2M SCN−) indicate that Zn(II), along with Hg(II), can be separated in a single extraction from a number of metals, e.g. Cs(I), Sr(II),
Ln(III), Y(III), Cr(III) and (VI). Other metals of interest like Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Mo(VI), U(VI) and Tc(VII) are coextracted
but the separation factors are large enough to allow separation in a multistage extraction process.
Although Michel Houellebecq makes a provocative claim that in literature he places content above form, there is a growing debate about his style in the academic world. By analyzing three of the author's novels we find that all of them consist roughly of three stylistic levels. Whereas the basic level is designed as deliberately neutral (``shallow'') writing based on sciences or non-fiction, Houellebecq often does not hesitate to rise to purely lyrical heights or, conversely, revert to the most vulgar language. It is using slang or argot French that enables the writer to create his own original style which can perhaps be only compared to Celine. In the same way as his predecessor, Houellebecq overwhelms readers with an outpour of swearwords; he drowns them in a sea of malicious remarks. Nevertheless, these verbal provocations are not self-serving. However paradoxical it may sound, Michel Houellebecq is above all a very original moralist. His cynical ``in fact'', a kind of variation of La Rochefoucauld's ``is...only'', aims at destroying illusions, removing masks and liberating European society from the dictatorship of political correctness. Only in this way is it possible, he claims, to escape what he calls today's ``slow suicide of the West''.
The goal of this article is to show that it is possible to construct an index to measure a country's relative specialization in different scientific fields in a way which is both reliable and relevant for macro-strategic analysis. We will call this index a Revealed Scientific Advantages Index. The technical problem to be discussed is one of aggregation: how can we be sure that an index calculated for a small number of relatively large fields does not mask significant policy needs synthetic measures which are easy to interpret. We will show that the Revealed Scientific Advantages approach offers the possibility of building them. The study itself is based on figures obtained through an exploitation of the INIST/CNRS PASCAL database classification of science. 107 sub-fields of this classification were initially used to determine the areas of specialization for 11 countries (revealed national advantages). Clustering techniques were then used to aggregate this data and 13 specific fields were identified. The science policy information produced during the study concerned these 13 fields. It proved to be both easily understandable and relevant for macro-strategic analysis.
Authors:Suman Singh, S. Misra, S. Pandit, K. Parikh, and S. Tripathi
This paper presents a simple, rapid and sensitive radiometric method for the determination of uranium in Thorex Process stream
containing large amount of thorium. This method involves the extraction of uranium into 0.05M tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide
(TOPO) in xylene at 2M HNO3. The extraction of thorium is prevented by masking them with suitable quantity of fluoride ions. The optimum experimental
parameters for extraction of 233U were evaluated and using the most suitable experimental conditions the extracted uranium is radiometrically determined by
α-counting in proportional counter with a prior knowledge of specific activity of uranium. Simultaneously in the same sample
uranium was determined by spectrophotometric method using 2-(5bromo-2 pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Bromo-PADAP) as chromogenic
reagents. Simulated as well as actual samples of dissolver, conditioner and raffinate tank of Thorex stream have been analyzed
by both these methods. The method was tested for as low as 0.15 μg of uranium and the results of these analyses were found
to be satisfactory within the experimental limits.
This paper examines a painting by the prominent Biedermeier painter Josef Danhauser, Liszt at the Piano, a unique visual document of the Romantic generation’s cultic relationship and collective memory surrounding the virtually holy predecessor, Beethoven. It demonstrates the Beethoven reverence of (1) the commissioner Conrad Graf, a piano maker, who gave an instrument to Beethoven, (2) the painter Danhauser, who took the death mask of the German composer, and (3) Liszt, who considered himself the artistic heir to Beethoven. Although it is a well-known and thoroughly researched painting, its re-examination is still worthwhile. Focusing on aspects of cultural history, the contemporary reception of the painting should be reconsidered from a synthesizing point of view utilizing the results of art historical iconography and musicology. As a kind of cultural study, the paper attempts to demonstrate the background and motives that lead to the creation of the painting. I shall place the painting in the wider context of the history of ideas which is represented by the art-religious experience Liszt and his Paris companions gained from Beethoven’s music. An evaluation of the narrower, historical background — the Beethoven cult triggered by the piano concerts given by Liszt in Vienna in 1839–1840 — will also be discussed.
Authors:R. Weginwar, Y. Kobayashi, S. Ambe, B. Liu, S. Enomoto, and F. Ambe
Separation of Au(III) and various carrier-free radionuclides by solvent extraction was investigated using an Au target irradiated by an energetic heavy-ion beam. Percentage extraction of Au(III) and coextraction of the radionuclides were determined with varying parameters such as kinds of solvent, molarity of HCl or pH, and Au concentration. Under the conditions where Au(III) was effectively extracted, namely extraction with ethyl acetate or isobutyl methyl ketone from 3 mol·dm–3 HCl, carrier-free radionuclides of many elements were found to be more or less coextracted. Coextraction of radionuclides of some elements was found to increase with an increase in the concentration of Au(III). This finding is ascribed to the formation of strong association of the complex of these elements with chloroauric acid. In order to avoid serious loss of these elements by the extraction, lowering of the Au(III) concentration or the use of a masking agent such as sodium citrate is necessary. Gold(III) was shown to be effectively back extracted with a 0.1 mol·dm–3 aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol. Thus, a radiochemical procedure has been established for preparing a carrier-free multitracer and an Au tracer with carrier form from an Au target irradiated with a heavy-ion beam. Both tracers are now used individually for chemical and biological experiments.
Manipulated prestige car ownership has been shown previously to enhance male attractiveness. In the current study the illusion of status-linked property ownership was achieved by presenting a target male and female (matched for attractiveness) adopting a casual posture standing in either a ‘high status’ (luxury apartment) or a ‘neutral status’ (standard apartment) context. A between-subjects design was used with the photographic stimuli presented amongst other masking stimuli and rated for attractiveness by opposite-sex university undergraduate participants (N = 102) on a scale of 1–10. The male model was rated significantly more attractive when presented to females in the high status compared to the neutral status context and was also adjudged to be significantly more attractive than the female target superimposed on an identical background. There was no significant difference in the female target models attractiveness ratings given by males across the two contexts. These results were obtained despite no sex-differences being found when separate participants were asked to rate the plausibility of each target model owning or renting the luxury property they were depicted in. These findings add to a growing body of work high-lighting the importance of contextual, evolutionarily relevant status cues in male attractiveness judgements.
Authors:V. Crăciunescu, C. Flueraru, and G. Stăncălie
The advantages brought by high resolution satellite data in activities related to flood mapping and flood monitoring are well know in the scientific community. The paper aims to prove that slighter older geospatial documents, such as historical maps, are also a valuable resource for cartographers and decision makers to achieve a better understanding of flood patterns and evolution. Some preparatory actions are needed in order to integrate the old maps into GIS environments for advanced analysis. This includes scanning, color enhancements, georeferencing, reprojection and metadata creation. To illustrate the process, the paper includes a real case scenario: the April 2006 Danube River flood. For one of the most affected sectors along the Danube, close to Rast village, three generations of historical maps (the Austrian 1:200 000 ‘degree maps’, the Romanian 1:20 000 ‘Lambert-Cholesky’ maps and the Soviet Union 1:100 000 ‘Gauss-Krüger’ maps) were processed and included in a large repository. At any time, the maps can be identified and accessed through open standard protocols like CSW and WMS. In this way, we were able to integrate and analyze the flood water masks, extracted from satellite data, along with the historical data sets. The results were very promising. It was possible to understand some flood patterns and to clearly demonstrate that, after the dike failure, the water filled up an area which in the past, before river regulation, was the natural Danube floodplain.
It has been demonstrated that pixel-by pixel processing of series of autoradiography images for revealing the dynamics of
decay of the induced radionuclides is an efficient approach for mapping of radionuclides in the sample in activation autoradiography.
Concepts of virtual scanner and corresponding software for linearization of dependence of optical density on scanner response
(luminosity) have been introduced. The concept provides unification of the subsequent processing of autoradiograms, irrespective
of the method as to how the digital image has been obtained. Algorithms and the software for estimation of decay parameters
of a radionuclide mixture for each pixel using a series of coaxially positioned images have been developed. The software is
able generate a set of the derivative meta-images allowing a conclusion to be made about the presence of the inclusions in
question. To increase the reliability of radionuclide mapping it is suggested to use analysis of distribution of half-life
values estimated for pixels of image zone(s) pointed by a special mask.
Authors:R. J. Pakeman, R. J. Pakeman, S. A. Hinsley, S. A. Hinsley, P. E. Bellamy, and P. E. Bellamy
The favoured state approach sensu Fox (1987) was used to investigate the existence of assembly rules for woodland bird communities in an agricultural landscape. When birds were classified according to gross breeding habitat requirements, year-round resident, .true. woodland species showed an excess of favoured states suggesting a possible assembly rule. There was weaker evidence for a similar assembly rule governed by foraging requirements. This pattern was shown for all woods together, and for most categories of woods, grouped according to size, shape or size and shape together. Summer migrants did not show such patterns, and their arrival appeared to mask any patterns established by year-round resident species. The statistical significance of the excess of favoured states was highest in 1990, when bird population densities were considerably higher than in 1991 and 1992. Interspecific competition appears to be a factor in structuring woodland bird communities within the area sampled. Some implications for the action of these assembly rules on the results of further habitat fragmentation are discussed.