Authors:N. Di Benedetto, C. Fares, V. Menga, M. Laus, D. Pastore, and Z. Flagella
Epidemiological studies associated consumption of whole-durum wheat products with reduced incidence of chronic diseases, diabetes and cancer. These health benefits have been mainly attributed to antioxidant activity (AA) due to the unique phytochemical content of wheat. Milling, extrusion and drying process can influence the activity of these beneficial compounds. In order to have a deep insight into the changes of nutritional value from raw material to pasta, the aim of this study was: i) to compare the AA of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of five durum wheat genotypes along the pasta chain; ii) to evaluate the changes in antioxidant properties of whole meal after processing in semolina and pasta. To this aim TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay based on ABTS•+ [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging activity was used due to its high reproducibility and simplicity.Low genotype variability was observed for both hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts. Milling process caused a significant decrease in AA due to the removal of the outside layers of the kernel. This decrease was more marked for lipophilic extracts due to the different distribution of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants along the kernel. Pasta making process while determining a further decrease in AA of lipophilic extracts caused a slight increase in AA of hydrophilic extracts compared to semolina. This might be due to melanoidins formed during Maillard reaction.Only for lipophilic extracts a predictive evaluation of semolina and pasta ABTS•+ scavenging activity was possible by testing raw material.
The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa induces behavioral changes in the cockroach prey by injecting venom into its central nervous system. In contrast to most other venomous predators, the wasp's sting does not induce paralysis. Rather, the two consecutive stings in the thoracic and head ganglia induce three stereotypic behavioral effects. The prey behavior is manipulated in a way beneficial to the wasp and its offspring by providing a living meal for its newborn larva. The first sting in the thorax causes a transient front leg paralysis lasting a few minutes. This paralysis prevents the cockroach from fighting with its front legs, thereby facilitating the second sting in the head. A postsynaptic block of central synaptic transmission mediates this leg paralysis. Following the head sting, dopamine identified in the venom induces 30 minutes of intense grooming that appears to prevent the cockroach from straying until the last and third behavioral effect of hypokinesia commences. In this lethargic state that lasts about three weeks, the cockroach does not respond to various stimuli nor does it initiates movement. However, other specific behaviors of the prey are unaffected. We propose that the venom represses the activity of head ganglia neurons thereby removing the descending excitatory drive to specific thoracic neurons.
Authors:I. Lopes, M. Madruga, A. Mourato, J. Abrantes, and M. Reis
The Nuclear and Technological Institute (ITN) has the legal responsibility to carry out the environmental radiological monitoring
at a national level. This survey was planned to provide relevant information on radioactivity levels in different components
of the ecosystem. In what concerns the terrestrial environment the evaluation of the 90Sr activity concentrations in foodstuffs has been performed using a method based on the separation of 90Sr by extraction chromatography and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. The trials were carried
out using 7 g of ash samples and 3 g of commercial Sr-resin (Eichrom). Validation trials were also performed using 90Sr spiked samples. The chemical yields were determined by gravimetric method, after the addition of stable strontium to the
foodstuffs. The 90Sr activity concentrations in complete meals, meat and vegetables were determined after 90Y ingrowths in the region 12–862 keV, using the Tri-Carb 3170 TR/SL scintillation counter in normal mode and a counting time
of 120 min. The results obtained were low and of the same order of magnitude of those reported by other European countries.
Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used for determinationsof 8 rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in two ChineseCRMs, GBW 08503 (wheat) and GBW 09101 (hair), and Cs, Sr, Th and U in fiveNIST SRMs, 1548 (Total Diet), 1486 (Bone Meal), 8414 (Bovine Muscle), 1566a(Oyster Powder) and 1575 (Pine Needles). These determinations are for eventualcertification of above ultratrace elements so far not certified. The radiochemicalseparation scheme used in RNAA of NIST SRMs is an anion exchange followedby the co-precipitation by (REE)F 3 for U and Th, and a SrSO 4 precipitationfor Sr and Cs. For RNAA of the two Chinese CRMs, a one step (REE)F 3 precipitationwas used. Chemical yields were determined for all relevant elements by tracerexperiments. All these materials were also analyzed by ICPMS, that offeredan opportunity to compare the two major trace analytical techniques on theirmerits and drawbacks for these particular cases. RNAA is proven to be oneof the important techniques in ultratrace analysis, especially in certificationof some ultratrace elements. Determination of elements in sub-ng/g level isstill an area to be further investigated because: (1) some such elements areimportant in food and health related environmental studies, (2) many of theseelements have no (or very few) certified values in existing biological CRMs,(3) reliable techniques qualified for ultratrace analysis are needed to beestablished, and (4) sampling behavior of elements at these levels is stillnot very well known (recommended minimum sample size may not be adequate).
Authors:Hedvig Fébel, F. Husvéth, T. Veresegyházy, and et al.
This study was designed to determine the effects of calcium salt of palm oil fatty acids (CS), hydroxyethylsoyamide (HESA), butylsoyamide (BSA) and soybean oil (SO) on degradation of crude protein and fibre in vitro, and on the blood plasma lipid parameters in vivo. Five mature wethers (body weight 75 kg) were fed five diets in a 5 × 5 Latin square experiment. The control diet consisted of 50% meadow hay and 50% concentrate with no added fat. The control diet was supplemented with CS, HESA, BSA, or SO. Fat was added at 3.5% of dietary dry matter (DM). The final ether extract content of the ration was near 6%. Each period lasted 20 days. Fat supplements, except HESA, consistently decreased the in vitro DM disappearance of soybean meal as compared to control. In contrast to the effect of other treatments, crude protein degradation was greatest in the test tubes with inocula obtained from sheep fed diet with HESA. Fat supplements equally inhibited the DM and fibre breakdown of alfalfa pellet. CS and HESA seemed to be less detrimental to in vitro fermentation of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than BSA and SO. All fat supplements increased blood plasma triglyceride, cholesterol and total lipid content. Plasma concentration of cholesterol and total lipid was highest with SO. The inclusion of CS in the diet increased 16:0, while all fat supplements increased plasma 18:0 and decreased 16:1 and 18:1 fatty acid content. Plasma 18:2n-6 was not changed by feeding CS and SO. However, compared to the control diet, 18:2n-6 increased with 12 and 41% in plasma fatty acids when sheep were fed HESA and BSA, respectively. The results showed that plasma concentration of linoleic acid was enhanced more when the amide was synthesised from butylamine than when from ethanolamine.
Porphyry's Cave of Nymphs is dedicated to deciphering the philosophical and theological significance of the cave described by Homer in the Thirteenth Canto of the Odyssey. However, within the exegesis of the Homeric cave awaits another exegesis concerning the cave in which Mithras sacrifices the bull and in which the initiation of the worshippers and the common meal take place.
According to Porphyry, the cave of the Nymphs is the place in which the worshippers were initiated into the platonic mystery of the descent and ascent of souls. Mithras, assimilated to the Demiurge of the Timaeus, generates souls by killing the bull he has caught, ridden and dragged into the cave which symbolises the cosmos. The souls, which are created by the bull/moon like bees in a sort of bougonia (cf. Virgil, Georgics IV), and which are animated by his blood, descend into the cycle of generation and incarnation and are dragged down by Boreas, the cold wind that keeps them cool in the place of earthly generation. After successive reincarnations the warm wind of Notus dissolves the carnal vestments that imprison them and returns them to the heat of the Sun.
Conclusion. After the comparison between the text of Porphyry and the CIMRM will show that the theme of the descent and ascent of souls is very weak in Mithraic finds, and the reading of tauroctony as bougonia remains deprived of iconographic evidence. To sum up, The Cave of the Nymphs is more relevant to the history of Platonism than to the history of Mithraicism.
Authors:Éva Ivanics, P. Rudas, G. Sályi, and R. Glávits
In a goose flock consisting of 2300 birds of 6 months of age severe goitre was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of naturally occurring goitre in geese, which is not related to the feeding of rapeseed meal. The major pathological findings included retarded growth and plumage development, significantly (300%) increased relative thyroid weight, fat accumulation in the mesenteric and abdominal region, and lipid infiltration of liver and kidney cells. Subsequent hormone analysis showed undetectable thyroxine (T4) levels and a dramatic drop in triiodothyronine (T3) plasma levels of the diseased geese. Thy- roidal histology displayed the typical signs of struma parenchymatosa. In order to get more information about the possible causes of the goitre, 10 geese from the affected farm were transferred into the laboratories of the Central Veterinary Institute. The geese were allotted into two groups. Group I received iodine supplementation for 55 days, while the other group served as sick control (Group S). Iodine treatment caused a dramatic improvement in the birds clinical condition except in plumage growth in Group I, while the clinical and main pathological signs of goitre remained unchanged or worsened in the untreated Group S. Contrary to this, the serum levels of thyroid hormones and responsiveness to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) improved not only in Group I but also in Group S. Almost euthyroid biochemical parameters were found after 55 days of iodine treatment in Group I and, surprisingly, a considerable improvement (especially in serum T3 levels) occurred also in Group S. These findings confirm the diagnosis of goitre but also call attention to the fact that iodine deficiency was not the only factor eliciting the disorder. The underlying possible goitrogenic substance could not be traced down.