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Glaubensleben und Religion der Ungarndeutschen

Verbindender und Trennender Katholizismus

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Györgyi Bindorffer

This article deals with the problem of the religion of the ethnic Germans in Hungary. It is assumed that Catholicism serves as an important item of the ethnic identity of this minority from diachronic as well as from synchronic perspective. Catholic religion has the historic function to help the ethnic survival. Religion has a very important role to divide and to unite ethnic minorities and the majority. A great deal of the Germans settled in Hungary in the 18th century is Lutheran. Catholic and Lutheran Germans are divided by their religion, which can be seen at their marriage customs, too. Since the Hungarian majority is also Catholic, both Germans and Hungarians have the cult of the Blessed Virgin, who is held by the Hungarian believers as Patrona Hungarica. With the help of a shared religion with the majority, they could develop a basis for national feelings and for assimilation, too.

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The paper analyzes ethnic data collection pertaining to criminal justice in Hungary. It shows that Hungary's approach to resist ethnic data collection by law enforcement authorities is not a good policy and it causes severe constitutional problems in other, non-criminal legal circumstances, where ethnic data is used in the context of additional rights and affirmative protection provided for ethno-national minorities. The paper follows a twofold analysis. First, it sets forth general problems relating to ethnic data collection, including a brief analysis of a uniquely Hungarian constitutional institution, the minority self-govern­ment structure. The focus of scrutiny then shifts to the criminal justice system, in particular the analysis of policing of racially motivated crime, and the question of police ethnic profiling.    

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We class among the Calvinist writers, who are treated in detail by the volumes of the new great polish literary history. Calvinists as a religious minority had relatively many belletrists in the 16–17th centuries: M. Bielski, A. Frycz Modrzewski, M. Rej, D. Naborowski as well as Anonim-Protestant, J. Cedrowski, S. Dunin Karwicki, J. Rybiński, A. Trzecieski Jr. P. Hulka-Laskowski was the only significant Calvinist writer in the 20th century.

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This paper deals with the publication and research of Ukrainian folklore on the pages of Ukrainian periodicals in Slovakia in the period from the mid-40’s of the 19th century to the present time. It presents the basic topics and issues under review as well as the names of the authors. It also reveals the importance of Ukrainian periodicals for the development and preservation of national and cultural identity of the Ukrainian minority in Slovakia.

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“The Impact of 1956 on the Hungarians of Transylvania”, provides a 50-year retrospective analysis of the political consequences of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 on the Hungarians in neighboring Romania. It focuses on the inter-ethnic knock-on effects in the Romanian Workers Party, the “Hungarian/Mures-Hungarian Autonomous Region”of Transylvania, and the cultural institutions of the Hungarian minority. It links these developments to present-day Romanian-Hungarian relations, both on the interstate and the intrastate levels.

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The Republic of Karelia is an independent state of the Russian Federation. The Karels, the Veps and the Russians are native people of the Republic of Karelia. According to the adopted ethnological criteria the Karels and Veps are considered to be national minorities of the Republic. Due to a longstanding tradition the Finns, including 5/6 of the Inkeri Finns, are believed to be a national minority as well. In accordance with the last census (1989) the national minorities made up only 13.1% of the total number of the inhabitants of Karelia (the Karels - 10%; the Finns - 2.7%; the Veps - 0.4%). Modern ethno-demographic situation in Karelia is considered to be a critical one. The average age of the Karels, the Veps and the Finns living there is higher than in the other ethnic groups. The process of democratization in the Soviet society aroused the national factor in the former Autonomous Republics. Ethnic minorities began to annouce infrigement of their rights, started organizing national movements. National and cultural rebirth of their peoples and first of all their languages appears to be the principle goal of these national societies. But the Karelian language has no official status. In 1991-1993 the writing of the Vepsians was restored. As for the Finnish language it does not have a definite status yet. The “Programme of the language-cultural rebirth and development of the Karels, Veps and Finns of the Republic of Karelia” was adopted in 1995 by the Karelian Government. By the end of the 1990s two approaches to the national problems were determined. The first is cultural (the development of languages and culture within national autonomy) and the second is political (the advancement of political demands from national-radical movements and organizations). But the stable political and national situation in Karelia guarantees a favorable solution to the problems of the ethno-cultural development of the Veps, Karels, Finns.

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The interwar period was crucial for the development of Polish–Ukrainian relations in the following decades. Political commentaries, studies in linguistics, social sciences, and legislative acts from this period reflect the changes of Polish attitudes towards the Ukrainian minority. In the late 1920s and 1930s, the traditional and exonymic terminology Rusin and ruski was gradually replaced by the new forms Ukrainiec and ukraiński.

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This paper is an attempt to compile a summary of the results of research on the dispersed ethnic group of the Croatian minority in Burgenland. Until now, only a few national and regional descriptions have been made. The need for compiling a summary arises from the frequency of segmented considerations on national culture. However, the integration of Central European culture into the EU requires a holistic approach.

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From the end of the 17th century Máriapócs in eastern Hungary arose as a place of pilgrimage, central to which was a (blood) weeping icon of the Virgin Mary. The place of pilgrimage still enjoys great popularity today and is especially visited by members of the Greek Catholic (Uniate) Church, originally Rusyns. A replica of the religious painting from Máriapócs can be found in the chapel of Siebeneich (Kerns, Obwalden, Switzerland) built in the first half of the 18th century. Since the early 1950s, when the original religious painting, which over time had been relegated to the background, was „rediscovered“, Hungarians living in Switzerland have made the yearly pilgrimage to Siebeneich. As in Máriapócs, where the pilgrimage of the Uniate minority (and respectively the Rusyn minority) raises the consciousness of their own specific religious identity, so does a pilgrimage to Siebeneich satisfy not only the religious needs of the Hungarian-Swiss, but also confirms and reproduces their particular identity as an ethnic minority living in Switzerland. The article shows how a religious painting, a pilgrimage and even the resulting social function is „copied“ and how this „copy“ becomes again an „original“.

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Treating people as equals is one of the main aims of constitutional democracies. Numerous examples prove the adverse effects if a state violates the equality principles relating to ethnic minorities and religious groups. Here is a lesson from Hungary. The Hungarian Constitutional Court (hereinafter: HCC) is not engaged in adjudicating concrete ‘cases and controversies’, but seemingly reviews the constitutionality of laws. The Constitution lays down the fundamental tenets relating to religious groups, churches, ethnic minorities and the principles of equality in general. Thus, the question is how the problems of religions and minorities are reflected in the constitutional case-law.The main theses of this article are following. First, based on historical facts the HCC provides preferential treatment for so-called historical churches. Second, in cases involving Roma the HCC does not consider the historical facts and social reality thus, the discrimination of Roma does not appear in the jurisprudence. Third, the unequal protection of churches and Roma by the state results in advantages being provided where the constitutional reasons of preferential treatment are absent while the state remains inactive where the promotion of the principles of equality would be most necessary.

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