Basic aspects of pollution and the role of analytical chemistry in environmental monitoring are highlighted and exemplified,
with emphasis on trace elements. Sources and pathways of natural and especially man-made polluting substances as well as physico-chemical
characteristics are given. Attention is paid to adequate sampling in various compartments of the environment comprising both
lithosphere and biosphere. Trace analysis is dealt with using a variety of analytical techniques, including criteria for choice
of suited techniques, as well as aspects of analytical quality assurance and control. Finally, some data on trace elements
levels in soil and water samples from India are presented.
The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle has been proposed by international organizations as an additional measure to the safeguards agreements currently in force. The specific element for each kind of nuclear activity, or nuclear signature, inserted into the ecosystem by several transfer paths, can be intercepted to a greater or lesser degree by different living organisms. This work demonstrates the technical viability of using pine needles as bioindicators for some nuclear signatures (Co, Ni, La, Ce, Sm, Th, and U) associated with uranium enrichment activities using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). The concentrations of the elements whose signatures were sought and were determined in pine needle samples collected at five specific sampling locations inside the area investigated demonstrate the potential of the instrument and of the method used to identify and quantify the sought signatures present in low quantities (traces) in the evaluated matrix.
Authors:Andreas Sandgren, V. Hollo, E. Huitric, and C. Ködmön
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)/ World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe . Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe 2012 . Stockholm : ECDC ; Mar 2012 . Available from: http
Authors:Ana Moreira, Bruno Souza, and Ana Teixeira
Naphthenates are produced when naphthenic acids present in crude oil are mixed with brine. They deposit at oil/water interface
and are insoluble in either of the phases causing a large problem to the oil industry. Generally, naphthenates precipitate
jointly with others compounds such as sulfates and carbonates. This fact makes difficult their characterization. In this study,
calcium stearate formation from stearic acid was investigated, under different conditions, as a previous model to understanding
of calcium naphthenate precipitation. Medium reactions distinct were studied and the results indicated that the ethanol medium
was the most efficient for the formation of solids because in this only case, the stearic acid was completely converted into
stearate. Monitoring of the conversion was performed by thermogravimetry in spite of this technique not be typical in salts
characterization. Nevertheless, the thermogravimetric analysis showed that is possible to identify differences between an
organic acid, a salt of this acid and an inorganic salt, in the same sample. Infrared spectra was used in order to confirm
the results obtained by thermogravimetry. However, this technique showed less efficiency and sensibility.
Authors:M. Tóth, A. Nagy, I. Szarukán, K. Ary, A. Cserenyec, B. Fenyődi, D. Gombás, T. Lajkó, L. Merva, J. Szabó, P. Winkler, and J. K. Jósvai
. M. ( 2004 ): Use of ethyl and propyl ( E,Z )-2,4-decadienoate in codling moth management: Improving monitoring in Bartlett pear with high dose lures . J. Ent. Soc. British Columbia 101 , 45 – 52 . Knight , A. L. and Light , D. M. ( 2005