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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Romina Miranda-Olivos, Trevor Steward, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Asier Juaneda-Seguí, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, José A. Fernández-Formoso, Nuria Vilarrasa, Misericordia Veciana de las Heras, Nuria Custal, Nuria Virgili, Rafael Lopez-Urdiales, José M. Menchón, Roser Granero, Carles Soriano-Mas, and Fernando Fernandez-Aranda

Cronbach's alpha was excellent ( α = 0.96). Impulsivity measure (UPPS-P) This 59-item questionnaire is a multi-dimensional assessment of impulsivity using five distinct personality traits related to impulsive behavior. Specifically, it measures lack of

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Abstract

The degree to which men invest financial resources, time, and effort into pursuing and maintaining relationships may be perceived by women as a cue to that man's suitability as father and a mate. Women's mate preferences are also influenced by cues to underlying heritable mate quality, such as an attractive, masculine voice. Relatively more masculine men may be able to provide heritable benefits to offspring, but masculinity is associated with decreased investment in relationships and offspring. Both individual differences in women's preferences for masculine voices and women's attributions of negative personality traits to masculine men suggests that women may be somewhat aware of the negative associations between men's physical masculinity and relationship/parental investment. In the current study, we found that in general, women perceived feminized men's voices as significantly more likely to invest time and effort, and be financially generous with romantic partners. We also found that women's preferences for masculine voice pitch in a long-term, but not short-term relationship context, were positively related to perceptions of male financial generosity and investment of time and effort in romantic relationships. These perceptions may represent an adaptive heuristic that aids women in selecting long-term mates that are likely to invest in relationships and offspring.

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Abstract

A good sense of humour is commonly offered in written dating advertisements demonstrating that humour is an important quality to have when attracting a mate, but not all humour is the same. This study used vignettes in the style of a personal advertisement to measure the attractiveness of affiliative and aggressive humour in different relationship contexts. The results demonstrated that affiliative humour was more attractive than aggressive humour in both relationship contexts but especially for long-term relationships. The results follow the pattern expected of affiliative humour styles being more attractive for long-term relationships due to being linked to qualities that may be important in long-term relationships such as likelihood of cooperation, and aggressive humour styles not being favoured for long-term relationships due to being linked to qualities that may be detrimental in long-term relationships. A follow-up study confirmed that different humour styles were associated with different perceived personality traits. Together these findings suggest that humour may be used to indicate an individual's personality and that the attractiveness of a good sense of humour depends on both the type of humour and the type of relationship being sought.

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Abstract

Positive relationships between perceived intelligence, actual intelligence and facial attractiveness have been attributed to (a) an attractiveness halo effect in which attractive individuals are attributed with positive personality traits and (b) a “good genes” model of mate choice. We sought to determine whether cues to intelligence exist in the face beyond an attractiveness halo effect and to explore relationships between residual cues to intelligence and personality attributions in male and female faces. In Study 1, we attempted to parametrically manipulate the perceived intelligence of faces while controlling for attractiveness. Results demonstrated that we manipulated perceived intelligence but may not have adequately controlled for an attractiveness halo effect: faces that were manipulated to look high in perceived intelligence were rated as more attractive. In Study 2, we found perceived intelligence to be related positively to perceived friendliness and sense of humour in male and female faces and inversely to perceived dominance in female faces. Results are discussed in the context of models of “good genes” and “attractiveness halo” models of the relationships between intelligence and attractiveness.

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Background

Attachment theory has been used in personalized treatments since decades. It is a major framework for understanding images of the self, affect regulation, reflective functions and interpersonal relationships. The improvement of attachment functioning is associated with positive treatment outcomes in eating disorders. However, attachment interventions have not been summarized in their psychotherapy.

Aims

The aim was to review the relevance of attachment features in the psychotherapy of eating disorders.

Methods

A literature review was carried out for empirical review and case studies, using the terms “eating disorder” and “attachment” from 1987 until 2017. From the 320 matches, 50 relevant studies were integrated into this review.

Results

The relationship between dysfunctional attachment and eating disorders could be conceptualized in seven ways, including transgenerational transmissions and mediator personality traits. Attachment can mediate between early experiences and adult symptoms, between intra- and interpersonal experiences, or may moderate the relationship between the risk factors and maladaptive eating. Attachment features also display a direct relationship with eating disorders, or may underlie their maintaining mechanisms. Nine psychotherapeutically relevant mediator factors could be identified, namely the patient’s self-concept and emotion-regulation, the conflation of self-esteem and body satisfaction, a sensitive interpersonal style, levels of perfectionism, depression, alexithymia, mentalization and reflective functions.

Conclusions

The assessment of attachment dysfunctions in the individual symptomatology may facilitate personalized case models. For patients with severe attachment dysfunctions, multimodal psychotherapies targeting the described focal points could be recommended. Randomized, controlled studies are required to test the efficacy of the interventions summarized, and to determine indications.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Eszter Kotyuk, Anna Magi, Andrea Eisinger, Orsolya Király, Andrea Vereczkei, Csaba Barta, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna Székely, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Judit Farkas, Bernadette Kun, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Róbert Urbán, Kenneth Blum, and Zsolt Demetrovics

psychological mechanisms of these behaviors. It seems that specific personality traits ( Andreassen et al., 2013 ), impulsivity ( Walther, Morgenstern, & Hanewinkel, 2012 ), and motivational factors ( Ream, Elliott, & Dunlap, 2011 ) play an important

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.1080/10720162.2011.555709 Rettenberger , M. , Klein , V. , & Briken , P. ( 2015 ). The relationship between hypersexual behavior, sexual excitation, sexual inhibition, and personality traits . Archives of Sexual Behavior, First Publ , 1 – 15 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Astrid Müller, Nora M. Laskowski, Patrick Trotzke, Kathina Ali, Daniel B. Fassnacht, Martina de Zwaan, Matthias Brand, Michael Häder, and Michael Kyrios

. ( 2016 ). Compulsive buying disorder clustering based on sex, age, onset and personality traits . Comprehensive Psychiatry , 68 , 1 – 10 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2016.03.003 . 10.1016/j.comppsych.2016.03.003 Granero , R. , Fernández

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. Psychological Monographs 47 Anderson, N. H. (1968) Likebleness Ratings of 555 personality-trait words. Journal of Personality and Social

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Affektív idegtudományi személyiségskálák (ANPS) Áttekintő tanulmányunkban a személyiségvonások érzelmi alapjaival foglalkozunk affektív idegtudományi megközelítésben. Összefoglaljuk azokat a kutatási eredményeket, amelyek a kéreg alatti agyi struktúrákhoz köthető elsődleges érzelmi rendszerek mérésével kapcsolatban születtek. Az Affektív idegtudományi személyiség skálák (Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales – ANPS) hat (+1) érzelmi vonás mérésére szolgálnak (FÉLELEM , HARAG, SZOMORÚSÁG, JÁTÉKOSSÁG, KERESÉS, GONDOSKODÁS, Spiritualitás). Módszer: Tanulmányunk alapját 65, 2003–2019 között publikált empirikus kutatás adja. Ezek mind-egyikében adatgyűjtés történt az ANPS kérdőívvel. A forrásokat négy csoportra osztottuk: validálási tanulmányok, biológiai markerekre hivatkozó tanulmányok, klinikai jellegű cikkek és egyéb, a széles körű alkalmazhatóságot igazoló publikációk. Jelen tanulmányban a validálással kapcsolatos kutatásokat összegezzük az időbeli stabilitás és a faktorszerkezet tekintetében, majd összegzést végzünk a megbízhatósággal, a nemi különbségekkel és az ANPS skálák együtt járásával kapcsolatosan.

Eredmények: Az ANPS által mért konstruktumok időben stabilak, azaz a skálák vonásokat mérnek, nem helyzetfüggő érzelmi állapotokat. A hat érzelmi rendszer két fő faktorba rendeződik (pozitív és negatív), ahol a negatív érzelmi vonások nagyobb magyarázóerővel bírnak, mint a pozitívak. A hat (+1) skála megbízhatónak mondható (Cronbach alfa > 0,7). Az eredmények alapján a nők magasabb pontszámot érnek el a GONDOSKODÁS, FÉLELEM, SZOMORÚSÁG skálákon, míg a férfi ak a JÁTÉKOSSÁG, KERESÉS, HARAG skálákon. A Spiritualitás skálán nincs nemi különbség. A skálák között szisztematikus együtt járások tárhatók fel.

Következtetések: Az ANPS megbízhatóan méri a személyiségünk alapjait alkotó, kéreg alatti agyterületekhez köthető érzelmi vonásokat, gazdagítva ezzel a személyiség idegtudományi megközelítésének (Personality Neuroscience) módszertanát. Az agyi képalkotó eljárásokkal együtt alkalmazva nemcsak ezen a területen nyithat új távlatokat, hanem a klinikai pszichológiában és a kulturális összehasonlító vizsgálatok terén is.

Introduction: In this review we focus on emotional basics of personality traits from affective neuroscience perspective. We summarize empirical studies using the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) that was developed for measuring six (+1) primary emotional systems located in subcortical brain areas (FEAR, ANGER, SADNESS, PLAYFULNESS, SEEK, CARE, Spirituality).

Methods: We selected 65 empirical studies published between 2003 and 2019 where ANPS questionnaire was used. We divided the studies into four clusters: validation studies, studies with biological markers, clinical studies and others demonstrating different application of the ANPS. In this review we summarized the validation studies in regard to the test-retest reliability, factor structure of the ANPS, then we conducted statistical analysis on 39 datasets for reliability, on 25 datasets for sex differences and inter-scale correlations (33 and 45 datasets).

Results: Based on the test-retest analysis ANPS constructs measure emotional traits, not context-dependent affects. The six primary emotions form two main factors (positive and negative emotions), and the negative emotions have greater explanation power than positive emotions. The six (+1) scales are reliable (Cronbach alphas > 0,7). Results show that women have higher scores on CARE, FEAR and SADNESS, while men’s scores are higher on PLAYFULNESS, SEEK and ANGER. No sex difference appeared on Spirituality scale. However, systematic inter-scale correlations were found.

Conclusions: The ANPS questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for measuring primary emotions that are located in the subcortical brain areas and are the building blocks of personality traits. It is a self-report measure of the recently developing fi eld of personality neuroscience. As a self-report instrument of brain imaging studies it can open new perspectives not only in neuroscience, but in clinical psychology and in cross-cultural studies.

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