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Swain, T. and Hillis, W. E. (1959): The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica. I. The quantitative analysis of phenolic constitutents. J. Sci. Food Agric. 10, 63-68. The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica. I. The

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Abstract  

This study furnished results on the enzymatic detection of phenolic compounds by means of a miniaturized heat-flow calorimeter (IC-calorimeter). Two enzymes were used: tyrosinase and peroxidase. Additionally to the investigations with the IC-calorimeter, measurements were carried out with a classical reaction calorimeter (LKB 8700) for the very slow reactions with tyrosinase. By way of contrast, the reactions with peroxidase are fast and seem more suitable for sensor application. The detection limit for the investigated phenolic compounds is of the order of 1 mmol l−1 .

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Vázquez, F. López-Suevos, J. González-Alvarez, and G. Antorrena

Summary  

Phenol-urea-formaldehyde-tannin (PUFT) adhesives have been prepared by copolymerization at room temperature of pine bark tannins with phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) prepolymers prepared under varying operating conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) have been used to analyse the curing of prepolymers and adhesives. DSC curves were obtained at three different heating rates and, by means of the Model Free Kinetics isoconversional method, chemical conversion vs. time at a given temperature was obtained. Mechanical conversion was calculated from DMA storage modulus data for those adhesives which gave the best results for plywood and MDF boards.

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The present paper deals with thermal decomposition of some spatially hindered phenols, which are in the industry as stabilizers in synthetic materials used. The investigated stabilizers are separated to two groups in respect to mechanism of decomposition (group I and II). This assumption was confirmed by chromatomass-spectrometric investigations. It allows a stabilizer for forming a plastic with variety properties to choose.

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This paper reports a linear relationship between kinetic characteristics from the Arrhenius equation describing a decomposition process found when studying the kinetics of thermolysis of spatially hindered phenols. This relationship between the coefficients is known in the literature as a 'compensation effect'. The existence of the compensation effect permits some conclusions concerning the decomposition mechanism and thermal characteristics of the compounds under investigation.

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Introduction Phenolic compounds have began to attract the interest of researchers, because they show promise of being powerful antioxidants that can protect the human body from free radicals, the formation of which is

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Abstract  

Ionizing radiation, such as gamma-rays and electron-beams, has been applied to modify toxicity of refractory pollutants and industrial wastewaters, however, very few studies reported the cause of toxicity changes by radiation treatment. In this work, degradation of phenol and chlorophenols (5·10−4M) by gamma-ray treatment and consequent toxicity changes were evaluated. Toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was gradually decreased with increasing absorbed dose of gamma-radiation. However, in the case of phenol and monochlorophenols (2-, 3-, and 4-CPs), toxicity was dramatically increased particularly, for a dose of as low as 1 kGy. Hydroquinone, benzoquinone, catechol, chlorohydroquinone, and 4-chlorocatechol were identified to be main by-products of gamma-ray treatment. From the solid phase extraction (SPE) fractionation study, toxicity-causing by-products were found to be hydroquinone, benzoquinone, chlorohydroquinone, and/or 4-chlorocatechol.

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], polyaniline [ 20 , 21 ] and polyvinyl alcohol [ 22 ] modified TiO 2 showed photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange, phenol, and so on. Unlike these recently reported insoluble homopolymers such as polypyrrole [ 18 ], polythiophene

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Abstract  

The gun system of the M1 series tank rides on a pair of self-aligning spherical bearings that allows the elevation and depression of the cannon. Because these bearings are encapsulated within the rotor housing, periodic lubrication or maintenance is impossible. To overcome this problem self-lubricating bearings were incorporated into the system. There are two basic liner designs, molded and fabric. Molded liners are produced by applying a formulation of teflon and typically asbestos into a phenolic resin, which is applied to the bearing surface, then cured. Fabric liners utilize a woven fabric bonded to the bearing surface, then teflon which is mixed into phenolic resin is applied to the bearing surface and cured. Initial studies of the existing bearing liner were completed to determine the liner composition and establish a baseline or standard to compare thermal and mechanical properties with potential vendors. DSC revealed an average teflon content of 39.53%, which varied significantly throughout the liner. TG analysis showed an asbestos concentration of 12.22%. The remainder of the liner was phenolic resin. Physical testing of the bearing from −20 to 120‡C under normal loading conditions demonstrated excellent thermal stability with little wear. Bearings from each vendor were tested and compared to the standard properties of the baseline bearing. Some properties were difficult to compare or insignificant due to the design differences between molded and fabric liners. The testing program resulted in the qualification of two bearings, which met or exceeded the established standards. Both of these bearings were designed with fabric liners.

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Summary

The quality of three types of beer (dark, light and non-alcoholic) was assessed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry and chemometrics. An HPTLC separation of the polar beer components in the ethyl acetate extract was developed. The polar components were detected either by the in situ 2,2-diphenyl-1-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH*) assay or by derivatization with the Neu’s reagent, followed by the PEG solution. This directly allowed the visual comparison and evaluation of the phenolic/flavonoid or radical scavenging (antioxidative) beer profile. Although the three types of beer showed a very similar chemical HPTLC pattern, the signal intensities were different. Detected by the Neu's reagent, the dark beer extracts contained a high amount of phenolic compounds, and the light beer extracts showed a moderate content, while the non-alcoholic beer extracts had the lowest phenolic content. The HPTLC-DPPH* assay confirmed the higher radical scavenging activity of dark beer extracts, if compared to light and non-alcoholic beer extracts. The most active bands with regard to the radical scavenging property were identified to be desdimethyl-octahydro-iso-cohumulone and iso-n/ad-humulone. The use of pattern recognition techniques showed a clear differentiation between dark and non-alcoholic beer extracts, while light beer extracts did overlap with both beer types. This HPTLC screening allowed the (1) direct comparison of beer samples/types via classification and pattern recognition, (2) the assessment of the beer quality with regard to its antioxidative potential, and (3) the reference to single components.

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