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: A Review and Appraisal. Population and Development Review 19(3): 431–466. Massey D. S. Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal

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The paper considers two aspects of the targeting of unemployment benefit systems: (a) the probability that benefit is received in the population of those unemployed on standard international criteria of search and availability, and (b) the probability in the population of benefit recipients that search is conducted. The focus is on Hungary but stylised facts for a range of Central European countries and two EU comparators are derived in the first part of the paper. The second part of the paper finds that most of the large decline in coverage of the Hungarian unemployed by insurance benefit (received by only a quarter of the searching stock in 1997) cannot be explained by changes in the composition of unemployment observable in labour force survey data (including unemployment duration). The probability of active search (search other than through a state employment office) is found to be very similar for those receiving insurance and assistance benefit.

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Despite significant policy efforts, in 2003 the Hungarian general population has fallen behind the Central and Eastern European (CEE) average regarding most social indicators of Internet access, usage, knowledge and attitudes. The article is a policy impact assessment interpreting the results of a population survey covering 10 countries of CEE, performed in 2003 within the framework of the SIBIS Project (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society). The 10 Newly Associated States (NAS) covered by the survey are as follows: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. In case of Hungary the relevant strategies, legal framework development and support actions of various public policy areas are analysed with the help of an international comparative analysis of survey findings.

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The paper deals with seminal changes in the socio-economic life of the Roma community in the village of Cserdi in Hungary, brought about by a host of strategic programs of a dynamic Roma Mayor. It suggests several measures to develop a viable development model by consolidating his programs with a few modifications to suit the Roma, who constitute the majority population in the village, as well as their counterparts living elsewhere in Hungary and Central and Eastern Europe. It also illustrates how such a model has proven to be a successful strategy in developing and empowering marginalized groups in India, while arguing its efficacy for the Roma situation in Hungary.

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The principle of free-of-charge health care services is written in the Ukrainian Constitution. However, the state fails to implement this principle in practice. Our analysis confirms that in spite of the proclaimed free-of-charge health care services, many Ukrainian patients pay for health care services and these payments are considerable. As much as 57% and 73% of patients using out-patient and in-patient services respectively reported having spent money for this. Among those who paid for health care services, the average annual expenditure is 636 UAH for out-patient services and 2,019 UAH for hospital services. Patients who paid formally on average spent 555 UAH for out-patient services per year, while those who paid informally, spent about 337 UAH. This unregulated patient payment system is a threat to the population’s health as it prevents many patients from obtaining the health care that they need. Hence, the current’ free-of-charge’ system does not work properly and cannot sustain the health of the nation any more. There is a need for a thoroughly designed official and transparent payment system as well as structural financial reforms.

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Croatia is faced with a low response to cancer-screening programs, especially the national cervical cancer screening program, which ultimately resulted in its suspension. If judged solely on the basis of revealed preferences, such a poor response would imply that the population assigns a low social value to preventive screening programs. However, the question arises as to whether revealed preferences (the population's response), in the case of the absence of response to a preventive program, provide insight into its value (utility). Therefore, the objective of this paper is to determine the value that respondents assign to different attributes of cervical screening and, in a broader sense, to decide whether the best-worst scaling (BWS) approach is appropriate for determining the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for public health programs. The MWTP for certain attributes of cervical cancer screening is derived from the results of a BWS study conducted in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Croatia. The cost function was estimated by regressing the conditional logit coefficients (level of utility) of three levels of the cost attribute on its corresponding values, that is, the hypothetical price. Because the sum of the MWTP corresponds with the market price of a gynecological examination in private practice, we conclude that the results obtained by the BWS confirm the revealed preferences (the market value of the service).

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Tourism industry offers citizens travel services as well as provides employment opportunities and makes foreign exchange. Tourism industry for the global is similar to the economic development in a single country. Apparently, it plays a critical role in the future. With on-site questionnaire distribution and collection, customers of Caesar Park Hotel are sampled for the investigation. A total of 360 copies of questionnaires were distributed, and 257 valid copies were retrieved, with the retrieval rate of 71%. Each retrieved copy stands for a valid sample. SPSS is utilized for the data analysis and hypothesis test. The research results are concluded as below. 1. Moving Experience reveals partially positive effects on Efficiency in Operating Performance. 2. Moving Experience appears to have significantly positive effects on Growth in Operating Performance. 3. Moving Experience presents remarkably positive effects on Profitability in Operating Performance. 4. Population attributes show effects on the correlations between Moving Experience and Operating Performance.

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It is known that the simple Markov chain model overestimates the long run horizon mobility of the income distribution process. Dissolving the homogeneity assumption of the Markov model may lead to better forecasts. One generalisation of the Markov model, the Mover-Stayer model assumes heterogenous population: some units are moving according to a common Markov chain, but there are some (unknown) units that are not moving at all. They are called stayers.Based on the Frydman (1984) methodology if we compute both the Markov and Mover-Stayer models for Hungarian micro-regions income data, we find that the Mover-Stayer model fits better the regional relative income data than the simple Markov model. Using likelihood ratio test statistics we show that the difference is highly significant. The method is also applied for spatially conditioned data. The results show that the high persistence of relative income positions is a remarkable feature of the Hungarian economy in 1990–2003 both on a country-wide scale and local level. We also demonstrate that forecasts made on a less reliant model might lead to very ambiguous results.

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The research focuses on the application of the Internet in three major areas: sales, purchasing and advertising, which, from a marketing point of view, are the most relevant activities in a company. It is argued that by the end of the 1990s in Hungary Internet-related business activities had become new and increasingly important areas of competition - and this observation holds even though the penetration of the Internet amongst the Hungarian population remains low, so that consumer fears are major obstacles to the more widespread use of this type of media. In this research, the “supply side” of business activities is investigated - that is, companies. In this article (which relies on a large-scale representative national survey carried out in 2000), there will first of all be provided an overview of the intensity of Internet usage among Hungarian companies in relation to marketing activity. Second, based on cutting-edge international literature, the possible factors in the model which determine Internet usage in companies' purchasing, sales and advertising activities will be outlined. Finally, there is an empirical testing of the given model on a representative sample of Hungarian companies.

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Current energy systems are in most instances not fully working sustainably. The provision and use of energy only consider limited resources, risk potential or financial constraints on a limited scale. Furthermore, the knowledge and benefits are only available for a minor group of the population or are outright neglected. The availability of different resources for energy purposes determines economic development, as well as the status of the society and the environment. The access to energy grids has an impact on socio-economic living standards of communities. This not fully developed system is causing climate change with all its related outcomes. This investigation takes into consideration different views on renewable energy systems — such as international discussions about biomass use for energy production, “fuel versus food”, biogas use — and attempts to compare major prospects of social acceptance of renewable energy in Europe and Africa. Can all obstacles to the use of renewable energy be so profound that the overall strategy of reducing anthropogenic causes of climate change be seriously affected?

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