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Migration Propensities. Presented at the European Population Conference 2001. Economic Developments and Internal Migration Propensities

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1 INTRODUCTION Across OECD countries, the world of work is continually changing but a number of megatrends, including technological change, globalisation and population ageing, may be combining to speed up and increase the magnitude of these changes

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): Wydatki Ludnosci na Ochronê Zdrowia [Population’s Expenses on Health Care]. Polityka Spoleczna 10/2001: 6–11. Golinowska, S. — Tambor, M. — Sowada, Ch. (2010): Wprowadzenie doplat pacjentów do swiadczem opieki zdrowotnej

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2009) Csáki, C. (2009): Impacts of Transition upon Rural Development and the Rural Population in Central and Eastern Europe. Keynote speech at the IAMO Forum 2009 on “20 Years of Transition in Agriculture” , June 17–19, 2009

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: A Review and Appraisal. Population and Development Review 19(3): 431–466. Massey D. S. Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal

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Despite significant policy efforts, in 2003 the Hungarian general population has fallen behind the Central and Eastern European (CEE) average regarding most social indicators of Internet access, usage, knowledge and attitudes. The article is a policy impact assessment interpreting the results of a population survey covering 10 countries of CEE, performed in 2003 within the framework of the SIBIS Project (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society). The 10 Newly Associated States (NAS) covered by the survey are as follows: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. In case of Hungary the relevant strategies, legal framework development and support actions of various public policy areas are analysed with the help of an international comparative analysis of survey findings.

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The paper considers two aspects of the targeting of unemployment benefit systems: (a) the probability that benefit is received in the population of those unemployed on standard international criteria of search and availability, and (b) the probability in the population of benefit recipients that search is conducted. The focus is on Hungary but stylised facts for a range of Central European countries and two EU comparators are derived in the first part of the paper. The second part of the paper finds that most of the large decline in coverage of the Hungarian unemployed by insurance benefit (received by only a quarter of the searching stock in 1997) cannot be explained by changes in the composition of unemployment observable in labour force survey data (including unemployment duration). The probability of active search (search other than through a state employment office) is found to be very similar for those receiving insurance and assistance benefit.

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The paper deals with seminal changes in the socio-economic life of the Roma community in the village of Cserdi in Hungary, brought about by a host of strategic programs of a dynamic Roma Mayor. It suggests several measures to develop a viable development model by consolidating his programs with a few modifications to suit the Roma, who constitute the majority population in the village, as well as their counterparts living elsewhere in Hungary and Central and Eastern Europe. It also illustrates how such a model has proven to be a successful strategy in developing and empowering marginalized groups in India, while arguing its efficacy for the Roma situation in Hungary.

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The principle of free-of-charge health care services is written in the Ukrainian Constitution. However, the state fails to implement this principle in practice. Our analysis confirms that in spite of the proclaimed free-of-charge health care services, many Ukrainian patients pay for health care services and these payments are considerable. As much as 57% and 73% of patients using out-patient and in-patient services respectively reported having spent money for this. Among those who paid for health care services, the average annual expenditure is 636 UAH for out-patient services and 2,019 UAH for hospital services. Patients who paid formally on average spent 555 UAH for out-patient services per year, while those who paid informally, spent about 337 UAH. This unregulated patient payment system is a threat to the population’s health as it prevents many patients from obtaining the health care that they need. Hence, the current’ free-of-charge’ system does not work properly and cannot sustain the health of the nation any more. There is a need for a thoroughly designed official and transparent payment system as well as structural financial reforms.

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Croatia is faced with a low response to cancer-screening programs, especially the national cervical cancer screening program, which ultimately resulted in its suspension. If judged solely on the basis of revealed preferences, such a poor response would imply that the population assigns a low social value to preventive screening programs. However, the question arises as to whether revealed preferences (the population's response), in the case of the absence of response to a preventive program, provide insight into its value (utility). Therefore, the objective of this paper is to determine the value that respondents assign to different attributes of cervical screening and, in a broader sense, to decide whether the best-worst scaling (BWS) approach is appropriate for determining the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for public health programs. The MWTP for certain attributes of cervical cancer screening is derived from the results of a BWS study conducted in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Croatia. The cost function was estimated by regressing the conditional logit coefficients (level of utility) of three levels of the cost attribute on its corresponding values, that is, the hypothetical price. Because the sum of the MWTP corresponds with the market price of a gynecological examination in private practice, we conclude that the results obtained by the BWS confirm the revealed preferences (the market value of the service).

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