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In the present study, the cytogenetic effects of the herbicide Logran on root tip cells of Triticum aestivumL. and Hordeum vulgareL. and changes of total protein content in root tip meristems were studied. The seeds of plants were treated with various concentrations of Logran (125, 250, 500 µg/ml) for 3 and 6 h. The percentages of abnormal cells were seen to increase with increasing treatment period and concentrations. The most dominant types of observed abnormalities were C-mitosis, distributed metaphase and anaphase, stickiness. All the used concentrations of Logran significantly induced a number of chromosomal aberrations in root tip cells of HordeumvulgareL. and TriticumaestivumL. Logran also decreased mitotic index. The decrease of protein content in root tips of TriticumaestivumL. is significant at all the treated concentrations and treatment periods when compared with control.

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Abstract  

The principal objective pursued in this study is to establish the base-line data on protein content and on the status of elemental composition in human milk from Sudanese subjects. The protein content was derived by multiplying the nitrogen content by a factor 6.25. The nitrogen was determined using a 14 MeV neutron generator. The median values for crude protein and the total dry matter found in this study were 1.23% (volume) and 104 g/l, respectively. Some minor and trace elements of biological significance namely, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co and Mo were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The results obtained show good compatibility with the data reported by the WHO on elemental composition of human milk from different geographical regions.

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Analytical application of Cherenkov radiation

V. Protein content determination by Cherenkov photometry

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: F. Kulcsár, R. Novák, L. Szabó, and B. Matkovics

Abstract  

Data are reported on the development of a Cherenkov photometric producere, applying the basic principle of the method of LOWRY et al. At various amplifications and channel settings, linear correlations may be obtained between the logarithm of the protein content and the external standard activity or the channel ratio. The values obtained by Cherenkov spectrophotometry based on the Filin method display a linear correlation with each other with a good correlation coefficient.

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Combining ability analysis in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) involving 10 diverse parents and their 45 F1 and F2 progenies indicated significant differences between the parents for GCA and between the crosses for SCA for all the characters studied. The GCA and SCA components of variance were significant for all the traits. However, the GCA component of variance was predominant, indicating the predominance of additive gene effects for the traits studied. Among the parents HD 2329, Raj 1972, HD 2285 and HD 2428 were the best general combiners for grain yield and average to high combiners for other important traits. The best specific crosses for grain yield were CPAN 3004 × Durgapura 65, Sonalika × HD 2329, Raj 3077 × CPAN 3004, Raj 3077 × HD 2428 and HD 2428 × WH 157.The parent Raj 1972 was the best general combiner for grain yield and protein content, while Raj 3077 and Lok-1 were the best general combiners for protein content. The most suitable specific crosses for protein content were HD 2329 x HD 2285, HD 2428 × Raj 1972 and CPAN 3004 × WH 157. Most of the specific crosses for grain yield and protein content involved high × average, average × average or average × poor general combiners. To ensure a further increase in grain yield along with high protein, combinations of desirable yield components are advocated. The exploitation of additive and non-additive gene actions through bi-parental mating and/or diallel selective mating systems are suggested for a tangible advance in grain yield coupled with high protein in spring wheat.

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Abstract  

For a non-destructive determination of the protein content in soya bean samples, 14-MeV neutron activation analysis /NAA/ was applied. To check the method, results obtained by X-ray fluorescence /XRF/ analysis and the Kjeldahl procedure were compared. For pressed pellet samples of about 1 g and choosing 15 min irradiation and 10 min measuring times the accuracy of the protein determination was found to be 15%.

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Apical stem culturing offers an alternative approach of manipulating cell sap for wheat grain carbon and nitrogen metabolism in a near in vivo conditions. Employing this technique, role of sucrose and glutamine in transport stream on sucrose metabolism, ammonia assimilation and aminotransferase activities were assessed towards starch and protein accumulation in two wheat genotypes PBW 343 (low yield) and PBW 621 (high yield). At mid-milky stage, detached tillers were cultured in complete liquid medium containing varied concentration of glutamine and sucrose for seven days during year 2012–13 and 2013–14. Increasing glutamine concentration from 17 to 25 mM in the culture medium having 117 mM sucrose enhanced activities of nitrate reductase, glutamate synthase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) at 4 days after culturing (DAC) in correspondence with an increase in soluble protein content. However, at 7 DAC content of soluble protein decreased whereas starch accumulation increased showing, thereby a compensatory effect on carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Apparently, activities of sucrose synthase, soluble acid and neutral invertase significantly decreased. Increasing sucrose concentration from 117 to 125mMled to an increase in transformation of sugars to starch in grain but protein content decreased. PBW621 showed high protein content due to higher activities of GOT, GPT at 4 DAC which subsequently increased carbon skeleton of proteins towards starch synthesis at 7 DAC. Grain filling processes in terms of soluble sugars/starch were strongly correlated to invertase activities whereas proteins to aminotransferases.

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The effect of microwave roasting on protease inhibitor activity and soluble protein content and composition in cracked soybeans was investigated in relation to the duration of treatment. Soybeans of Hodgson var. were cracked to 1/6-1/8 of the size of whole bean, dehulled and were exposed to microwaves at a frequency of 2.450 MHz. Soluble protein content of hexane defatted samples were determined and PAGE, SDS-PAGE and densitometric analyses were used to determine the change of major soybean protein subunits as a function of roasting time. Residual protease inhibitor activities and isoinhibitor composition were also determined.Microwave treatment is an effective way for inactivation of protease inhibitor activity in cracked soybeans. Roasting for only two minutes reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity to 13.33% of the initial value. Both types of inhibitors, Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk (BBI) were responsible for residual inhibitor activity. The duration of microwave roasting had strong influence on soluble protein content and polypeptide composition. Microwave treated samples were characterized by dominant content of glycinin, and high stability of acidic (-A1,2,3-, -A5-) and basic (-B1,2,3,4-) glycinin subunits were established.

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The effects of environment and the high molecular weight glutenins on some quality properties (sedimentation volume, % protein content, and starch pasting viscosity) of bread wheat mutant waxy lines were evaluated. Thirty-eight 100% amylose-free F 2 derived F 6 and F 7 lines were used. The results indicated that the environment did not influence sedimentation volume, mixograph parameters and starch viscosity parameters of waxy flour. Variation in the % protein content was determined mainly by the environment. The sedimentation volume and the mixograph peak development time were influenced by the variation at over expression of Bx7 and the mixograph peak development time was influenced by the Glu-D1 locus. One starch viscosity parameter, time to peak viscosity, was influenced by variation at the Glu-A1 locus. This parameter is significantly lower in the waxy lines than the parent line, which shows the influence of the waxy loci. No significant correlation was observed for sedimentation volume, mixograph parameters, protein content and viscosity parameters of waxy lines.

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A field experiment was conducted at the Agriculture Faculty Farm of Sebha University during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 winter seasons to study the agronomic performance of seven pea genotypes with different sowing dates in sandy soil. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) using a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The five sowing dates (30 October, 15 November, 30 November, 15 December and 30 December) were assigned to the main plots, while the seven pea genotypes (Ambassador, Pollon, MG130256, G22765-2c, 89-P-109-11, No. 252, Victory Freezer and Master B) were allocated to the sub-plots. The sowing dates had a significant effect on all the studied traits except seed protein content in both seasons. Early sowing (15 November) was better than the other sowing dates for all the traits except 100-seed weight. There were significant differences between the pea genotypes for all the traits in the two growing seasons. The Victory Freezer genotype surpassed the other genotypes for all traits except number of branches plant-1 in the second season, 100-seed weight and seed protein content. The highest values for number of branches plant−1 in the second season and for seed protein content were obtained for the G22765-2c genotype, while the maximum values of 100-seed weight were recorded for the MG130256 genotype. A significant interaction between sowing dates and pea genotypes was detected for the length of the period from emergence to initial flowering, number of pods plant−1, seed yield plant−1 and seed yield ha-1 in both seasons. The longest period from emergence to initial flowering was obtained for the Victory Freezer pea variety sown on 30 November, while the highest values of pods plant−1, seed yield plant−1 and seed yield ha−1 were gained by sowing the Victory Freezer pea genotype on 15 November.

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The yield, protein and starch content of Martonvásár maize hybrids belonging to different FAO groups were examined in experiments involving early, optimal and late sowing dates in two different years (drought — 2007, favourable water supplies — 2008) on a calcareous chernozem soil with loam texture at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Debrecen.Sowing date had a significant effect on maize grain yield in the dry year. The grain yields of hybrids with longer growing periods were significantly higher than those with shorter growing periods in both years, but they reacted sensitively to the change in sowing date in the dry year. Due to the rainfall distribution in the growing season, sowing date did not modify the performance of the hybrids in the year with favourable water supplies. Sowing date had a significant effect on the grain protein content in the dry year, with significantly higher values after late sowing than after early or optimal sowing. Averaged over the sowing dates, the protein content of the FAO 200 hybrid was significantly higher in both years than that of hybrids in other FAO groups. In the dry year, the greatest difference in protein content could be observed between the early and late sowing dates for hybrids in all four FAO groups. A negative correlation was found between yield and protein content. Sowing date significantly increased the starch content of maize in the favourable year, with a significant difference between early and late sowing dates.In the dry year higher starch contents were recorded for all the hybrids and for all the sowing dates than in the favourable year. In the dry year, sowing date only caused a significant difference in the starch content in the case of FAO 200 sown at optimal and late sowing dates. In the favourable year, a significant difference was only obtained for the starch content of the FAO 400 hybrid sown at early and late sowing dates. Satisfactory quality can only be achieved if suitable genotypes are grown with appropriate technologies.

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