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The interrelationships among the grain protein, oil, fatty acids, starch, Na, K, Fe concentrations and chemical grain characteristics were determined by correlation analyses in thirty-five commercial dent corn hybrids. An increase in oil content of the corn is accompanied by a decrease in starch content and by an increase in caproic acid content. The correlation coefficients involving protein content of corn hybrids with oil content ( r = 0.066) and with saturated fatty acid (SFA) ( r = −0.247*) evidence that protein content is more related to fatty acid distribution than the oil quantity. Linear relationships between refractive index (RI) (nD40 °C) and saturated fatty acid ( r = 0.369**) and between refractive index and oleic acid ( r = 0.364**), and between iodine number (IN) and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) were determined. In addition, oleic acid is strongly correlated with linoleic ( r = −0.769**) and linolenic acids ( r = −0.335**).

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Milled rice from nine aromatic cultivars was evaluated for physicochemical, cooking, and antioxidant properties. Physical parameters measured were milling outrun, head rice yield (HRY), and appearance (size and shape). Cooking time, water uptake ratio and elongation ratio were determined to study their cooking quality. Chemical parameters included were amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), gel consistency (GC) and alkali spreading value (ASV). Total phenolic content (TPC) was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were used to study their antioxidant activity. This study revealed all rice cultivars, except Basmoti-370 and Gopalbhog, showed HRY. Besides, all rice cultivars displayed high protein content. Significant variations (P<0.05) were found in TPC and the antioxidant activities of the rice cultivars. The correlation coefficient between the TPC and the antioxidant activities was strong and statistically significant (P<0.05).

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In the present study, the cytogenetic effects of the herbicide Logran on root tip cells of Triticum aestivumL. and Hordeum vulgareL. and changes of total protein content in root tip meristems were studied. The seeds of plants were treated with various concentrations of Logran (125, 250, 500 µg/ml) for 3 and 6 h. The percentages of abnormal cells were seen to increase with increasing treatment period and concentrations. The most dominant types of observed abnormalities were C-mitosis, distributed metaphase and anaphase, stickiness. All the used concentrations of Logran significantly induced a number of chromosomal aberrations in root tip cells of HordeumvulgareL. and TriticumaestivumL. Logran also decreased mitotic index. The decrease of protein content in root tips of TriticumaestivumL. is significant at all the treated concentrations and treatment periods when compared with control.

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Analytical application of Cherenkov radiation

V. Protein content determination by Cherenkov photometry

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: F. Kulcsár, R. Novák, L. Szabó, and B. Matkovics

Abstract  

Data are reported on the development of a Cherenkov photometric producere, applying the basic principle of the method of LOWRY et al. At various amplifications and channel settings, linear correlations may be obtained between the logarithm of the protein content and the external standard activity or the channel ratio. The values obtained by Cherenkov spectrophotometry based on the Filin method display a linear correlation with each other with a good correlation coefficient.

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Abstract  

For a non-destructive determination of the protein content in soya bean samples, 14-MeV neutron activation analysis /NAA/ was applied. To check the method, results obtained by X-ray fluorescence /XRF/ analysis and the Kjeldahl procedure were compared. For pressed pellet samples of about 1 g and choosing 15 min irradiation and 10 min measuring times the accuracy of the protein determination was found to be 15%.

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Combining ability analysis in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) involving 10 diverse parents and their 45 F1 and F2 progenies indicated significant differences between the parents for GCA and between the crosses for SCA for all the characters studied. The GCA and SCA components of variance were significant for all the traits. However, the GCA component of variance was predominant, indicating the predominance of additive gene effects for the traits studied. Among the parents HD 2329, Raj 1972, HD 2285 and HD 2428 were the best general combiners for grain yield and average to high combiners for other important traits. The best specific crosses for grain yield were CPAN 3004 × Durgapura 65, Sonalika × HD 2329, Raj 3077 × CPAN 3004, Raj 3077 × HD 2428 and HD 2428 × WH 157.The parent Raj 1972 was the best general combiner for grain yield and protein content, while Raj 3077 and Lok-1 were the best general combiners for protein content. The most suitable specific crosses for protein content were HD 2329 x HD 2285, HD 2428 × Raj 1972 and CPAN 3004 × WH 157. Most of the specific crosses for grain yield and protein content involved high × average, average × average or average × poor general combiners. To ensure a further increase in grain yield along with high protein, combinations of desirable yield components are advocated. The exploitation of additive and non-additive gene actions through bi-parental mating and/or diallel selective mating systems are suggested for a tangible advance in grain yield coupled with high protein in spring wheat.

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Apical stem culturing offers an alternative approach of manipulating cell sap for wheat grain carbon and nitrogen metabolism in a near in vivo conditions. Employing this technique, role of sucrose and glutamine in transport stream on sucrose metabolism, ammonia assimilation and aminotransferase activities were assessed towards starch and protein accumulation in two wheat genotypes PBW 343 (low yield) and PBW 621 (high yield). At mid-milky stage, detached tillers were cultured in complete liquid medium containing varied concentration of glutamine and sucrose for seven days during year 2012–13 and 2013–14. Increasing glutamine concentration from 17 to 25 mM in the culture medium having 117 mM sucrose enhanced activities of nitrate reductase, glutamate synthase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) at 4 days after culturing (DAC) in correspondence with an increase in soluble protein content. However, at 7 DAC content of soluble protein decreased whereas starch accumulation increased showing, thereby a compensatory effect on carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Apparently, activities of sucrose synthase, soluble acid and neutral invertase significantly decreased. Increasing sucrose concentration from 117 to 125mMled to an increase in transformation of sugars to starch in grain but protein content decreased. PBW621 showed high protein content due to higher activities of GOT, GPT at 4 DAC which subsequently increased carbon skeleton of proteins towards starch synthesis at 7 DAC. Grain filling processes in terms of soluble sugars/starch were strongly correlated to invertase activities whereas proteins to aminotransferases.

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The effects of environment and the high molecular weight glutenins on some quality properties (sedimentation volume, % protein content, and starch pasting viscosity) of bread wheat mutant waxy lines were evaluated. Thirty-eight 100% amylose-free F 2 derived F 6 and F 7 lines were used. The results indicated that the environment did not influence sedimentation volume, mixograph parameters and starch viscosity parameters of waxy flour. Variation in the % protein content was determined mainly by the environment. The sedimentation volume and the mixograph peak development time were influenced by the variation at over expression of Bx7 and the mixograph peak development time was influenced by the Glu-D1 locus. One starch viscosity parameter, time to peak viscosity, was influenced by variation at the Glu-A1 locus. This parameter is significantly lower in the waxy lines than the parent line, which shows the influence of the waxy loci. No significant correlation was observed for sedimentation volume, mixograph parameters, protein content and viscosity parameters of waxy lines.

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The effect of microwave roasting on protease inhibitor activity and soluble protein content and composition in cracked soybeans was investigated in relation to the duration of treatment. Soybeans of Hodgson var. were cracked to 1/6-1/8 of the size of whole bean, dehulled and were exposed to microwaves at a frequency of 2.450 MHz. Soluble protein content of hexane defatted samples were determined and PAGE, SDS-PAGE and densitometric analyses were used to determine the change of major soybean protein subunits as a function of roasting time. Residual protease inhibitor activities and isoinhibitor composition were also determined.Microwave treatment is an effective way for inactivation of protease inhibitor activity in cracked soybeans. Roasting for only two minutes reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity to 13.33% of the initial value. Both types of inhibitors, Kunitz (KTI) and Bowman-Birk (BBI) were responsible for residual inhibitor activity. The duration of microwave roasting had strong influence on soluble protein content and polypeptide composition. Microwave treated samples were characterized by dominant content of glycinin, and high stability of acidic (-A1,2,3-, -A5-) and basic (-B1,2,3,4-) glycinin subunits were established.

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A field experiment was conducted at the Agriculture Faculty Farm of Sebha University during the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 winter seasons to study the agronomic performance of seven pea genotypes with different sowing dates in sandy soil. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) using a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The five sowing dates (30 October, 15 November, 30 November, 15 December and 30 December) were assigned to the main plots, while the seven pea genotypes (Ambassador, Pollon, MG130256, G22765-2c, 89-P-109-11, No. 252, Victory Freezer and Master B) were allocated to the sub-plots. The sowing dates had a significant effect on all the studied traits except seed protein content in both seasons. Early sowing (15 November) was better than the other sowing dates for all the traits except 100-seed weight. There were significant differences between the pea genotypes for all the traits in the two growing seasons. The Victory Freezer genotype surpassed the other genotypes for all traits except number of branches plant-1 in the second season, 100-seed weight and seed protein content. The highest values for number of branches plant−1 in the second season and for seed protein content were obtained for the G22765-2c genotype, while the maximum values of 100-seed weight were recorded for the MG130256 genotype. A significant interaction between sowing dates and pea genotypes was detected for the length of the period from emergence to initial flowering, number of pods plant−1, seed yield plant−1 and seed yield ha-1 in both seasons. The longest period from emergence to initial flowering was obtained for the Victory Freezer pea variety sown on 30 November, while the highest values of pods plant−1, seed yield plant−1 and seed yield ha−1 were gained by sowing the Victory Freezer pea genotype on 15 November.

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