Ever since Goldin (1995) proposed the idea that there is a U-shaped female labor force participation rate function in economic development, empirical research is stunned by the question why the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are characterized by such low rates of female labor force participation. This gap in labor economics research is all the more perplexing since gender equality, particularly in education and employment, significantly contributes to economic growth. The research strategy of this paper is within a relatively new tradition in labor market research, initiated by Besamusca et al. (2015), which does not exclude the “religious factor” and what the authors call “gender ideology”. Our analysis of the “gender ideology” of Islamism and gender values is based on an empirical analysis of World Values Survey data. In recent economic theory, Carvalho (2013) maintained that Muslim veiling is a strategy for integration, enabling women to take up outside economic opportunities while preserving their reputation within the community. The empirical data clearly support a pessimistic view. We show that Muslim Feminism, which according to our analysis implies the rejection of Islamism and the veil, and the democracy movement in the Muslim world, are closely interrelated. Thus, it is imperative that Western Feminism develops solidarity with Muslim Feminism, and that labor economics stop excluding the religious factor from the analytical frameworks explaining low female labor force participation rates.
Authors:Veronika Müller, Zsuzsanna Kováts, and Gábor Horváth
A létfontosságú szervek elégtelenségének kezelésében a szervtranszplantáció a napi gyakorlat része. A recipiensek közös jellemzője, hogy immunszuppresszív kezelést igényelnek a szervkilökődés megakadályozása érdekében. Az immunszuppresszió növeli az infekcióhajlamot, különösen az egyébként alacsony virulenciájú opportunista kórokozókkal szemben. A szervtranszplantáltak fertőzéseinek jelentős része a tüdőt és a légutakat érinti. Az infekciós komplikációk felismerésében a pulmonológiai diagnosztika, magas szintű mikrobiológiai eljárások és a különböző képalkotó technikák alkalmazhatók. A terápia fejlődése és elérhetősége elengedhetetlen az infekciók eredményes kezeléséhez. Tekintve, hogy a szervtranszplantáltak száma folyamatosan nő, az orvos mind nagyobb számban találkozhat vese-, máj-, szív- vagy tüdőtranszplantált betegek pulmonalis komplikációival. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 899–903.
Using data collected for a sample of 69 Dutch physicists, the present study employs a multivariate approach in order to re-examine the Ortega hypothesis. Stated succinctly, the Ortega hypothesis maintains that, in large measure, science has progressed through the efforts of many quite average scientists. Based on a combined citation search of 2763 source and reference authors, eminent scientists are shown to cite other eminent scientists, although not to the extent reported among American physicists in earlier research by theColes. The tendency for eminent scientists to cite other eminent scientists is a rather recent occurrence in The Netherlands, and may signal a major trend in the differential allocation of facilities and resources which, in turn, impact on the development of science in that country. In addition to the citation rate of source author's year of article's publication and length of source author's professional experience, are also shown to be significantly related to the eminence of reference authors cited, thereby signaling caution concerning rejection of the Ortega hypothesis.
This article examines the novels of mid-nineteenth-century Hungarian author Zsigmond Kemény. Falling roughly at the beginning of what is often referred to in critical literature as the century of psychological realism (1850-1950), Kemény's novels contain numerous examples of the various narrative techniques developed by authors throughout Europe as they called on language to serve both mimesis of action and mimesis of thought. His works can be cited as examples of a European wide shift in literature away from the narration of events towards the narration of thoughts and feelings. This corresponded to the emergence of the conception of the individual that accompanied the Romantic rejection of the Enlightenment faith in the universality of humankind. As texts drawn from one of the less familiar literary traditions of Europe, Kemény's novels constitute illustrations of the international nature of this trend. Moreover, they represent works that develop the distinctive potential of the novel as a genre the audience of which (the reader) has access not only to the actions and deeds, but also the thoughts and impressions of a subjective consciousness.
Authors:Cecilia Hodúr, Szabolcs Kertész, József Csanádi, Gábor Szabó, and Zsuzsanna László
In this study the performance of a vibratory shear-enhanced processing system (VSEP) for the concentration of cheese whey was assessed and compared with a classical, cross-flow, plate and frame membrane configuration system (3DTA) with the same membrane (i.e. a C30F UF regenerated cellulose UF membrane with a 30 kDa molecular weight cutoff). The temperature and pressure dependences of the permeate flux, the permeate flux reduction ratio, the resistances and the rejection values were investigated. Comparison of the two systems revealed a definite advantage for the VSEP system equipped with the same membrane and operated at the same pressure and temperature. The VSEP system yielded a permeate protein retention of 99.7% vs. 74.5% for the 3DTA system, together with a higher average flux: 54 L m
vs. 44.2 L m
. The flux reduction ratio (
) was 0.60 vs. 0.42, and the total resistances 2.87*10
for the VSEP and 3DTA system, respectively.
Authors:Danilo V. Ravina, Rowell Ray Lim Shih, and Gabriella Medvegy
This study exhibits the use of participatory design in the development of a community housing project for the twelve family members of the Donnaville Homeowners Association in Barangay 177, Caloocan City, Philippines. All families have been living as informal settlers of which portions of it were considered unsafe due to recurrent flooding during heavy rains. The housing project study was part of a workshop initiated by members of the Community Architecture Network. In order to achieve this methodology, the community architects arranged workshops between members of the families. The members were divided into teams that worked separately and then collectively identify strategies in improving the design and layout of the housing unit according to the needs of each family. The teams identified various interventions in order to effectively reduce the cost of each new unit. Finally, through comprehensive discussions and exchanges between the members, the resulting layout and schematic design of the housing unit were achieved that was desirable to the families. By using participatory design in the development of a project, in this case, a community housing unit, user acceptance is therefore increased and rejection is reduced by the stakeholders.
Authors:László Piros, P. Á. Deák, G. Dallos, Zs. Máthé, and A. Doros
Ureteric complications following renal transplantation are well known to cause significant morbidity and compromised graft survival. The necrosis of a major part of the ureter could be a highly detrimental situation, and hardly solvable complication, that poses great challenges. Herein we are presenting a case report to introduce a possible surgical solution following repeated ineffective radiological interventions, in a patient with ureteric necrosis that appeared 3 months after cadaveric kidney transplantation. We transplanted the right kidney to the right iliac fossa performing end-to-side vascular anastomoses and end-to-side uretero-ureterostomy. His clinical course was uneventful during 3 months, when he presented a mild borderline acute cellular rejection together with dilatation of the pyelon. Percutaneous nephrostomy was performed by interventional radiologist. During further radiologic interventions the stenosis was not permeable. We finally made up our minds for surgical solution. We found a totally necrotized graftureter. During a second operation we performed a right nephrectomy, transsecting the pyelon. After mobilization of the transplanted kidney approaching and identifying the pyelon, a large pyelopyelar anastomosis was performed with stenting. The postoperative follow-up showed excellent urine flow from the kidney to the bladder, then the TRD was removed. Surgery had to be considered only if minimally invasive procedures are infeasible or ineffective. A regimen of reconstructive methods are well-known, but all cases have to be evaluated individually. If the native kidneys can be removed, their pyelons and entire ureters should be used for reconstruction.
Authors:István Hartyánszky, László Ablonczy, Elek Bodor, István Hartyánszky jr., Gábor Bodor, Sándor Mihályi, Erzsébet Sápi, Balázs Héthársi, and András Szatmári
A szerzők egy 7 éves dilatativ cardiomyopathiás gyermek esetét ismertetik, akinél megelőzően súlyos aortainsufficientia miatt műbillentyű-beültetés történt. Az NYHA–IV. stádiumba került betegnél 2007. október 18-án szívtranszplantációt végeztek. Magyarországon ez volt az első sikeres gyermekszív-átültetés. Zavartalan korai posztoperatív szak után 6 hónappal a gyermek panaszmentes, szívizom-biopszia, echokardiográfiás vizsgálat rejectiót nem mutat, keringéstámogató gyógyszert nem igényel, immunszuppresszív terápiájaként az interleukin-2-receptor-blokkoló basiliximabbal történő indukciója után hármas kombinációt (tacrolimus + mycophenolate mofetil + corticosteroid) alkalmaznak.
This paper explores the evolution of Kornai’s thought on general equilibrium theory (GET) and his position on mainstream economics. Three moments in this evolution will be highlighted, starting by his rejection of GET and advocating disequilibrium in Anti-Equilibrium (1971). While Kornai does not treat the “equilibrium paradigm” as irrelevant, he suggests an alternative paradigm, namely economic systems theory that he further develops in the 1980s as “system paradigm”. Economics of Shortage (1980) marks a second phase in which Kornai distinguishes Walrasian equilibrium from normal state or Marshallian equilibrium. In this phase, he supports Marshallian equilibrium rather than disequilibrium. Finally, By Force of Thought (2006) is a critical self-appraisal in which Kornai considers Anti-Equilibrium as a “failure” and acknowledges GET as a benchmark of an ideal competitive market. He now advocates a Walrasian equilibrium as an abstract reference model, but refuses to consider this model as a description of reality. In this sense, he rejects the New Classical economics. Paradoxically, however, his original heterodox concept of “soft budget constraint”, irreconcilable with standard microeconomics, has been integrated into new microeconomics as an optimal intertemporal strategy of a maximizing agent in the absence of credible commitments. It will be argued that Kornai’s so-called failure is rather related to his half-in, half-out mainstream position, while his institutionalist system paradigm is still a heterodox research project of the future.
In the United States today, legally defensible data is needed for environmental assessments, waste characterization, and dose assessments. A closer look at the raw data and interpretation of the results can reveal other problems that affect the data usability based on the project data quality objectives. The common problems include the following: incomplete sample dissolution, loss of volatile radionuclides during sample preparation, difficulties in aliquot subsampling during sample preparation, lack of a sample-specific chemical recovery mechanisms, use of an inappropriate sample-specific chemical recovery mechanism, not using enough of the sample-specific chemical recovery mechanism to obtain sufficient counting statistics for the recovery result, gamma-spectrometry misidentification, use of incorrect abundances or intensities, and incomplete separation of isotopes prior to alpha-spectroscopy analysis. These problems can result in the estimation or rejection of the results. Although most of these problems can be avoided, no improvement in their frequency has been noticed over time. This paper is written in an attempt to call attention to the typical problems in hopes that the contract laboratories as well as the government laboratories will review their practices to avoid these problems.