Authors:Magdalena Ligor, Olga Kornyšova, Audrius Maruška, and Bogusław Buszewski
In this study thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used for analysis of the constituents of extracts of tea (
L.) and Rooibos (
) leaves. In particular, flavonoids, a group of phenolic compounds, for example myrecetin, rutin, catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol were analyzed. Extracts of various types of tea, for example black, green, and Rooibos herbal tea (called red tea) were analyzed. The efficiency of extraction of flavonoids from plant material by classical liquid extraction (LE) and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE) was also compared. Recoveries of individual flavonoids were approximately ten times higher after use of solvent extraction. Separation of flavonoids from tea extracts on the basis of their polarities was optimized by selection of solvents, stationary phases, and chromatographic conditions. For final analyses glass-backed silica gel 60 F
plates and the mobile phase acetone-chloroform-water 80:20:10 (
) were used. UV detection of TLC chromatograms (254 and 366 nm) was used. Better detection of the flavonoids was achieved at 366 nm. The concentration of some important flavonoids in real tea samples was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
E tanulmány két évtizedes kutatómunka eredménye. Arra vállalkozik, hogy - elsősorban külföldi - pszichoszociális fogászati kutatási eredmények alapján felvázolja a fogászati szociológia körvonalait. A budapesti Orvostudományi Egyetem (ma: Semmelweis Egyetem) Magatartástudományi Intézetének megalakulásával (1993) kedvező feltételek alakultak ki a fogászati szociológia kidolgozására. A kilencvenes évek második felében zajlott a külföldi fogászati epidemiológiai-szociológiai-pszichológiai kutatási eredmények szisztematikus feltárására és szintetizálására irányuló irodalomkutatás. Az eredmények alapján felvázolhatók a fogászati szociológia főbb területei: 1. A fogászati páciens. A fogászati státus egyenlőtlenségei, ennek magyarázata a páciens szocioökonómiai státusa alapján. Az orális egészségmagatartás (a napi rutin szájhigiéné stb.) szociális szabályszerűségei. Attitűdök az orális egészségmagatartásban (hiedelem-modell és életminőség). 2. A fogorvos. A fogorvossá válás (szakmai szocializáció) pszichoszociális szabályszerűségei (motivációk stb.) A fogorvosi pályaattitűdök főbb területei, összetevői. A kiégési szindróma (burnout) jelentkezése fogorvosoknál. A fogorvosok társadalmi státusa, különös tekintettel a magyar viszonyokra (privatizáció). 3. A fogorvos-páciens interakciói. A kölcsönös részvétel pszichoszociális modellje. A fogászati szorongás szociológiája (a dentális félelem). A fogorvos-páciens kommunikáció főbb szabályszerűségei. A fogászati páciens elégedettsége, ennek pszichoszociális mutatói. A „jó fogorvosi ellátás”kritériumai.
Authors:E. Ivanišová, K. Meňhartová, M. Terentjeva, L. Godočíková, J. Árvay, and M. Kačániová
The aim of the present study was to determine the microbial composition, antioxidant activity, and content of phytochemicals in prepared kombucha tea beverage. Microbiota was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, antioxidant activity of beverage was tested by ABTS and phosphomolybdenum method, the total content of phytochemicals (polyphenols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids) was measured by colorimetric methods. The major phenolic acids, flavonoids, and methylxanthines were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Candida krusei, Sphingomonas melonis, Sphingomonas aquatilis, Brevibacillus centrosporus, and Gluconobacter oxydans were the most abundant microorganisms. Antioxidant activity of kombucha tested by ABTS and phosphomolybdenum method was 1.16 mg TEAC/ml and 2.04 mg TEAC/ml, respectively, which values were higher than in black tea 0.67 and 0.81 mg TEAC/ml, respectively. Also, content of total polyphenols (0.42 mg GAE/ ml), flavonoids (0.13 mg QE/ml), and phenolic acids (0.19 mg CAE/ml) was higher in kombucha than in black tea (0.18 mg GAE/ml; 0.02 mg QE/ml; 0.05 mg CAE/ml, respectively). Gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids, and rutin and vitexin from flavonoids were dominant in kombucha beverage detected by HPLC. Strong difference in caffeine contents, 217.81 µg ml−1 (black tea) and 100.72 µg ml−1 (kombucha beverage), was observed. The amounts of theobromine were similar in black tea and kombucha, but theophylline was detected only in black tea in trace amount (0.52 µg ml−1).
Authors:F.J. García-Alonso, I. Navarro-González, G. Ros, and M.J. Periago
The aim of this research was to assess the total antioxidant activity (TAA) of lipophilic (Lextr) and hydrophilic (Hextr) tomato extracts using in vitro chemical tests and cell-based assays, focusing on possible synergistic actions between tomato antioxidants. Both Hextr and Lextr were HPLC analysed for their carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid contents. For the evaluation of TAA, extracts were assayed alone or in combination using in vitro chemical tests (TEAC, FRAP) and cell-based (CAA) assays using human hepatoma (HepG2) and human histiocytic lymphoma (U937) cells. The only carotenoid detected in Lextr was lycopene, while a mixture of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin) was identified in Hextr. Ascorbic acid was not found either in Hextr or in Lextr. Upon extract combination (1:1, v/v), the FRAP assay revealed additive action between Lextr and Hextr, whilst a slight synergistic action was observed in TAA as measured by the TEAC assay. Synergistic action was better revealed when TAA was analysed using either U937 or HepG2 cells. This could be explained by the presence of a multiphase media (cell membrane and extra- and intracellular media) that might facilitate the distribution and interaction of antioxidants with different polarities and different mechanisms of action.
Authors:Dragana Jakovljević, Sava Vasić, Milan Stanković, Ljiljana Čomić, and Marina Topuzović
The antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, total phenolic content and flavonoid concentration of Seseli rigidum Waldst. et Kit. were evaluated. Five different extracts of the aboveground plant parts were obtained by extraction with distilled water, methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Total phenols were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent, with the highest values obtained in the acetone extract (102.13 mg GAE/g). The concentration of flavonoids, determined by using a spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and expressed in terms of rutin equivalent, was also highest in the acetone extracts (291.58 mg RUE/g). The antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH reagent. The greatest antioxidant activity was expressed in the aqueous extract (46.15 μg/ml). In vitro antimicrobial activities were determined using a microdilution analysis method; minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) were determined. Methanolic extract had the greatest influence on bacilli (MIC at 0.0391 mg/ml), but the best antimicrobial effect had acetone and ethyl acetate extracts considering their broad impact on bacteria. According to our research, S. rigidum can be regarded as promising candidate for natural plant source with high value of biological compounds.
Authors:László Herke, Károly Vincze, and Ida Matkó
A szerzők fiatal nőbeteg műtéti megoldását ismertetik, akinél súlyos fokú palmaris hyperhidrosis miatt végeztek szimultán bilateralis mellkasi sympathectomiát VATS-módszerrel. Bemutatják az alkalmazott anaesthesiologiai és műtéttechnikai lépéseket. Az 55 perces műtét során végzett Th2-Th3-as ganglionectomia, illetve az érintett sympathicus köteg eltávolítását követően betegük zavartalan kórlefolyás után panaszmentessé vált, hyperhidrosisa megszűnt. Az endoscopos (VATS) thoracalis sympathectomia rutin eljárás súlyos fokú felső testféli (palmaris, axillaris, facialis) hyperhidrosis kezelésére. Kétoldali érintettség esetén racionális elképzelés az egyidejű bilateralis megoldás, melyet a szerzők az alkalmazott VATS-technikával eredményesen végeztek. Röviden vázolják a hyperhidrosis sebészi kezelésének előzményeit. Véleményük szerint a bilateralis megjelenésű kóros izzadékonyság műtéteit, a nemzetközi szakirodalom adataival egybevágóan, célszerűnek látják egy ülésben mindkét oldalon elvégezni. A módszer biztonságos, kellő hatással bír, emellett rövidebb kórházi tartózkodást igénylő eljárás.
Authors:J. L. Zhao, L. Zou, L. Y. Zhong, L. X. Peng, P. L. Ying, M. L. Tan, and G. Zhao
This study was to examine the effects of four fungal polysaccharides, namely exo-polysaccharide (EPS), water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxideextracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), and hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS) obtained from the endophytic fungus Bionectra pityrodes Fat6, on the sprout growth and flavonoids production of Fagopyrum tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and functional metabolites accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the polysaccharide species along with its treatment dose. With application of 150 mg/l of EPS, 150 mg/l of WPS and 200 mg/l of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yield of buckwheat sprouts was effectively increased to 49.18 mg/(100 sprouts), 50.54 mg/(100 sprouts), and 52.27 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.57- to 1.66-fold in comparison with the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed the accumulation of bioactive flavonoids resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by fungal polysaccharide treatments. It could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts applied with specific fungal elicitors.
Herbal formulations have reached extensive acceptability as therapeutic agents for several diseases. The development of an authentic analytical method which can reliably profile the phytochemical composition, including quantitative analysis of marker/bioactive compounds and other major constituents, is a major challenge to scientists. With the realization of the growing popularity and demand for phytopharmaceuticals, standardization is becoming a mandatory part for the regulation of herbal drug industry. Simple, precise, and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic methods were developed for the estimation of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) (I) and rutin (II), the two bioactive phytoconstituents in Methiorep premix, a phytoadditive formulation containing herbal ingredients that mimics methionine-like activity. Separation of I and II was carried out on silica gel F254 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with butan-1-ol-acetic acid-water (8:2:2, v/v) and ethyl acetate-butan-1-ol-formic acid-water (5:3:1:1, v/v), respectively. Visualization, scanning, and quantification of analytes were performed at 288 nm and 254 nm, respectively. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the slope, intercept, and coefficient of determination/regression coefficient (r2) for calibration plot. The response was linear in the ranges investigated. Evaluation was on the basis of peak area. The average content of these markers in different batches of the formulation was 0.28% and 0.02% (w/w), respectively. The methods were validated for linearity, accuracy, and precision in accordance with the statistical method of validation and are useful for establishing the batch-to-batch consistency.
Authors:Jin Wang, Xianshuang Cao, Yadong Qi, Vanessa Ferchaud, Kit L. Chin, and Feng Tang
The leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. are one of the sources of food and traditional medicine. A combination of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) bioautographic assay with mass spectrometry (MS) has been performed to screen and identify the antioxidant compounds in the leaves of H. sabdariffa L. The crude extract of H. sabdariffa L. was separated on silica gel 60 HPTLC plates in an automatic developing chamber (ADC2) with toluene–ethyl acetate–formic acid–methanol (6:6:1.6:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. Antioxidant bands were visualized by dipping in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reagent. Five antioxidant compounds were identified as neochlorogenic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), cryptochlorogenic acid (3), rutin (4), and isoquercitrin (5), which could be the predominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the leaves of H. sabdariffa L. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to discriminate ten accessions of H. sabdariffa L. using an image-processing software. This simple HPTLC fingerprint assisted by PCA can be used as a reliable method for the discrimination of different accessions of H. sabdariffa L.
The potential of polyamide as adsorbent for separation of nine compounds — (±)-catechin (DL-C), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin 3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin 3′-gallate (TF2B), and theaflavin 3,3′-digallate (TF3) — was studied. Polyamide TLC plates dried with a hair dryer, application as bands, and development in a horizontal chamber gave the best results. Detection was performed using iron(III) chloride-ethanol reagent. Twofold development with chloroform-methanol 2:3 (
) as mobile phase resulted in the separation of TF1, TF2A, TF2B, and TF3 from all the other compounds. EGCg, ECg, and EGC were separated but EC and DL-C were not separated from each other. The best mobile phase for each of the compounds is reported. The best separation of the five main catechins (EC, DL-C, EGC, ECg, and EGCg) was achieved by use of
-butanol-acetone-acetic acid 5:5:3 (
). In addition, separation of the flavonols myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin and the phenolic acids gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid was achieved by twofold development with chloroform-methanol 2:3 (
). The applicability of the method was checked by screening of extracts of green, black, oolong, and pu-erh tea.