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A field experiment was carried out during the rainy season (June-October) of 1998 at the Research Farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India to study the effect of coating prilled urea with eco-friendly neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) formulations in improving the efficiency of nitrogen use in hybrid rice. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Two rice cultivars, hybrid rice (NDHR-3) and Pusa Basmati-1, formed the main plots, with the levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N ha-1) and various forms of urea at 120 kg N ha-1 in the sub-plots. The results obtained in this study showed that the rice hybrid NDHR-3 performed significantly better than the scented variety Pusa Basmati-1 for almost all the agronomic traits tested (growth, yield attributes, grain and straw yields, nitrogen uptake and apparent N recovery) The advantage of grain yield in hybrid NDHR-3 was nearly 16 q/ha over Pusa Basmati-1. Increasing levels of nitrogen significantly increased the number of effective tillers hill-1, panicle length, panicle weight, grain and straw yields and nitrogen uptake, thereby revealing a significant decline in agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Among the sources of N, Pusa Neem Golden Urea proved to be significantly superior to other sources with regards to panicle length, grain yield, N uptake, agronomic nitrogen use efficiency and apparent N recovery (%), indicating that coating urea with neem formulations not only increased the grain yield, NUE and apparent N recovery, but also helped to reduce the environmental hazards associated with the use of large amounts of urea.

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North West Himalaya Region of India faces serious shortage of green fodder up to 60 percent, particularly in winter months of November to March. Possibility of augmenting green fodder availability from cultivated lands, which is very limited (10% of geographical area) is explored by cultivation of dual purpose wheat, providing green fodder a part from grain production. Influence of wheat variation and their cutting schedule on fodder and grain yield were studied. Selected wheat varieties included VL Gehun 829, VL Gehun 616 and advance lines of VL 818 and VL 840, respectively. Significantly higher green fodder yield (69.32 q/ha) was obtained from VL 818 than under VL Gehun 616 and VL Gehun 829, while it was at per with fodder yield of VL 840. Cutting of green fodder scheduled at 70 and 85 DAS resulted no significant difference in yield. However, it showed the possibility of extended availability of green fodder without affecting the production the grain and straw yield obtained under VL Gehun 829 (60.05 q and 121.5 q/ha, respectively) were statistically superior to VL Gehun 616 and VL 818 and at par with VL 840. Harvest of green fodder affected grain yield of wheat up to 7% through it was not statistically significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that among the different cultivar VL Gehun 829 and VL 840 are the most suitable for dual purpose and can be cut after 70 and 85 DAS for green fodder as both stage of cut produced at par green fodder, grain and straw yields, thereby ensuring fodder and food security in the region.

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Ten winter wheat cultivars released in the years 1921–2003 in Slovakia were evaluated in pot experiment in 4 variants of N fertilization and in 2 terms of harvest (heading — a, maturity — m). Biomass N concentration at heading, grain N concentration (Ng), straw N concentration (Nv), and biomass N concentration at maturity were determined. N uptake and characteristics of N translocation, accumulation in grain and utilization were estimated. The year of cultivar release (YCR) was in relationships with nitrogen translocation efficiency (NTRE) (r = 0.720++) and with decreasing N% in vegetative biomass during grain filling (RNT) (r = −0.614). Strong correlation between YCR and N uptake in grain (r = 0.796), YCR and N harvest index (NHI) (r = 0.816++), and YCR and N utilization for grain (NUTg) (r = 0.877++) indicated that the modern cultivars more intensive accumulated N in grain and utilised N for grain than old ones. YCR was in negative correlation with N uptake in biomass at heading (r = −0.790++), N utilization for biomass (r = −0.678+) and with ratio Ng to Nv (relative N accumulation RNA) (r = −0.710+). Modern cultivars, in spite of their higher grain N uptake (NUP), lower N concentration in straw, higher N accumulation in grain (NHI) and higher efficiency of N translocation (NTRE) and (RNT), had lower N grain concentration than old cultivars. At the same or lower total N uptake they had considerably higher grain yield and therefore between Ng and NUTg was strong negative correlation (r = −0.977++). This is a result of the unilateral selection on grain yield. Selection should be concentrated not only on increasing of N uptake efficiency, but also on increasing of total N uptake by increasing of biomass N concentration. RNT and RNA are also recommended for selection on increasing of N grain concentration. Hypothetic models of cultivars with different NUP, NUTg and different relationships between NUTg and Ng were discussed.

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. & Yua , Z. ( 2009 ): Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of rice straw by microwave pretreatment . Bioresource Technol. , 100 ( 3 ), 1279 – 1284 . Mcmillan

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Interactions between the elements N, Cu and Mo were studied on rape in 2000 in a field experiment set up on chernozem loam soil with lime deposits. The ploughed layer of the soil contained 3% humus, around 5% CaCO3 and around 20% clay. Soil analysis showed that the area was well supplied with Ca, Mg, K and Mn, had satisfactory Cu content, but was only poorly or moderately supplied with P and Zn. The groundwater depth was 13–15 m and the area was prone to drought. The experiment was originally set up in a split-plot design with 4N × 3Cu = 12 treatments in three replications, giving a total of 36 plots. The N rates, applied as calcium ammonium nitrate, were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha−1 and the Cu rates, in the form of CuSO4, were 0, 50 and 100 kg ha−1. In the 5th year of the experiment the 15 m long plots were halved and the two half-plots were separated by a 1 m path. The experiment thus became a strip-split-plot design, consisting of 4N×3Cu×2Mo = 24 treatments in three replications, giving a total of 72 plots. The 48 kg ha−1 Mo was applied in the form of (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O. The generative phases of flowering and ripening were characterized by drought and depression. The main results were as follows:

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. A., 2000. Evaluation of poultry manure and rice straw as source of potassium for potato in sandy loam soil. Egyptian Journal of Soil Science. 40 . 437--452. Evaluation of poultry manure and rice straw as source of potassium

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In a long-term experiment on a mollisol in North India, the availability of Ca, Mg and S nutrients was enhanced under integrated nutrient management (INM) conditions, but depleted in the case of continuous rice-wheat-cowpea cropping for 28 years without nutrient input (control), suggesting the need for the regular estimation of these macronutrients in soils under intensive cropping. The soil was still able to supply crop needs for Ca and Mg, but the soil became S-deficient (8.9 mg kg−1) when S-free diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer was applied. Its availability increased 5-fold (45.3 mg kg−1) after the application of S-containing single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer and improved further when this was combined with farmyard manure (FYM) in an INM system. The wheat response to S was 0.36 and 0.45 t ha−1 for the grain and straw yields, respectively. The highest removal of Ca, Mg and S was observed with INM (21.36, 27.52 and 13.38 kg ha−1, respectively) and the lowest in the unfertilized control.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: D. Boonkusol, A. Dinnyés, Mayurachat Sa-ardrit, Saovaros Svasti, Tassanee Faisaikarm, J. Vadolas, Suthat Fucharoen, and Yindee Kitiyanant

A major clinical feature of patients with thalassemia is growth retardation due to anemia, therefore, the hematological parameters, weanling weight and post-weanling weight of pups obtained from vitrifiedwarmed embryo transfers were studied for the first time in this report. Two-cell embryos of four transgenic (TG) thalassemic mouse lines (BKO, 654, E2, and E4) were produced by breeding four lines of TG thalassemic males to wild-type (WT) females (C57BL/6J) and were cryopreserved by vitrification in straws using 35% ethylene glycol. After transfer of vitrified-warmed embryos, hematological parameters, spleen index, weanling and post-weanling weight were determined in TG and WT viable pups. In the BKO and 654 mice significantly abnormal hematological parameters and spleen index were observed compared to WT, E2 and E4 mice. The weanling and post-weanling weights of BKO and 654 pups were significantly less than that of the age-matched WT pups. However, no significant differences in weanling and post-weanling weight were found between WT and E2-TG or E4-TG pups. In conclusion, the four transgenic mice lines produced from cryopreserved embryo transfer retain the phenotype of the natural breeding mice indicating that these banked embryos are appropriate for thalassemia model productions.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Caner Öztürk, Şükrü Güngör, Mehmet Bozkurt Ataman, Mustafa Numan Bucak, Nuri Başpinar, Pınar Ili, and Muhammed Enes Inanç

The present study was conducted to examine the protective role of arginine and trehalose on post-thaw bull sperm and oxidative stress parameters. Five ejaculates for each bull were used in the study. Each ejaculate, split into three equal aliquots and diluted at 37 °C with base extenders containing 2 mM arginine, 25 mM trehalose and no antioxidant (control) was cooled to 5 °C and then frozen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for evaluation. Supplementation of the semen extender with arginine decreased the percentages of post-thawed subjective motility (29 ± 8.21%), CASA motility (12.2 ± 5.69%) and progressive motility (3.52 ± 2.13%), compared with the controls (43 ± 2.73%, 55.4 ± 6.78% and 33.48 ± 4.14%, respectively, P < 0.05). Supplementation of the semen extender with trehalose produced a higher mitochondrial activity and sperm viability (36.3 ± 3.99% and 44.1 ± 2.18%) compared with the control (13 ± 8.15 and 31.7 ± 3.94%, respectively, P < 0.05). It was established that trehalose (95.1%) and arginine (92.8%) protect DNA integrity compared to the control (90.4%) (P < 0.05). Trehalose supplementation in semen extenders provided great benefit in terms of viability, mitochondrial activity, and intact sperm DNA on frozen-thawed bull sperm.

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Finding and improving wheat cultivars with good adaptability to abiotic stress is an important objective in breeding programmes. An experiment was set up in the climate chamber of the Martonvásár phytotron to test the effect of heat and drought stress on two winter wheat varieties and one variety of durum. Wheat plants exposed to 35°C and drought during grain filling exhibited altered agronomic and grain quality characteristics. Drought was found to have a much greater influence on yield and quality than heat stress. Reductions in the unextractable polymeric protein fraction and the glutenin-to-gliadin ratio indicated poorer grain yield quality as a result of drought, despite higher protein content. Quality deterioration was observed after drought, while heat stress had no noticeable influence on the protein quality of the three wheat genotypes, measured using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC). The durum variety had a better ratio of protein components and a significantly higher Zeleny value when exposed to heat stress, although it had the lowest grain yield and grain/straw ratio.The most significant negative correlation was observed between the Zeleny value and the unextractable polymeric protein (UPP%) fraction after heat treatment and between the relative protein content and the albumin+globulin % (AG%) in the case of drought. These correlations testify that these parameters play an important role in determining the baking quality of wheat flour.

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