The paper discusses the treatment of proverbial wisdom in Polish graffiti by drawing upon nearly 100 paremic structures collected on Polish Internet sites in the last decade. Proverbs in mural writing are classified as existential graffiti inscriptions due to their general rather than individualized reference. Graffiti writers challenge the potential of universal application of proverbs, paraphrazing the original forms, creating anti-proverbs in the process, with an eye to exposing the limited application of paremic wisdom or rejecting proverbs as entirely unsuitable in the context of modern Polish society. The paper explores the ways in which humour is employed in the use of proverbs in Polish murals.
In the preface to his Septem sacramenta (1878–1884), Franz Liszt acknowledged its stimulus — drawings completed in 1862 by the German painter J. F. Overbeck (1789–1869). This essay explores what Liszt likely meant by his and Overbeck’s “diametrically opposed” approaches and speculates on why the composer nonetheless acknowledged the artist’s work. Each man adopted an individualized treatment of the sacraments, neither in line with the Church’s neo-Thomistic philosophy. Whereas the Church insisted on the sanctifying effects of the sacraments’ graces, Overbeck emphasized the sacraments as a means for moral edification, and Liszt expressed their emotional effects on the receiver. Furthermore, Overbeck embedded within his work an overt polemical message in response to the contested position of the pope in the latter half of the nineteenth century. For many in Catholic circles, he went too far. Both works experienced a problematic reception. Yet, despite their works’ reception, both Overbeck and Liszt believed they had contributed to the sacred art of their time. The very individuality of Overbeck’s treatment seems to have stimulated Liszt. True to his generous nature, Liszt, whose individual voice often went unappreciated, publicly recognized an equally individual voice in the service of the Church.
Among Franz Liszt’s symphonic poems, Hunnenschlacht (“The Battle of the Huns,” 1857) and Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe (“From the Cradle to the Grave,” 1883) were inspired by the visual arts. With these works, Liszt attempted to translate painterly figurations into music; this intention is particularly embodied in his symphonic transformation of Wilhelm Kaulbach’s monumental fresco, Hunnenschlacht. Liszt was attracted by the idea of religious devotion and at the same time identified himself with the Huns. This paper considers the ways in which Liszt expressed the narrative plot and imitated the visual qualities of the Hunnenschlacht fresco by deploying innovative instrumental techniques and a progressive formal structure. This work illustrates Liszt’s interest in combining different art forms, and the prominent use of an apotheosis is an expression of the Beethovenian symphonic model. Liszt shared with early-nineteenth-century Romantics such as E. T. A. Hoffmann an interest in synaesthesia, associating colors with sounds. In Hunnenschlacht, he used the graphic illustration of the fresco as his primary source, yet he also attempted to convey the various tone colors associated with the figures. This interpretative process is explained in his preface to the score, in which Liszt describes the lights and colors associated with the Huns, the Romans, and the Cross. The peculiar treatment of instrumentation, including the use of wooden and sponge drum sticks, organ, unusual combinations of instruments, and an audacious treatment of dynamics, vibrantly depict the distinct colors or lights that envelop the principal figures in the painting.
Hungarian has a number of apparently synonymous time adverbs that can measure the duration of time intervals. The paper explores these adverbs in some detail, and argues that contrary to appearances, none ofthem are freely interchangeable. The starting point is a discussion of the property of homogeneity that time adverbs are sensitive to. The paper argues for a specific treatment of homogeneity and a preliminary adverb definition based on that treatment. It is proposed that some, but not all, Hungarian time adverbs share the default definition. The diverging adverbs may (a) contain a covert frequency predicate or (b) not measure the duration of the time interval directly, but by determining an endpoint of the interval. Hungarian time adverbs also differ in the range of time intervals they can measure; some, but not all adverbs can measure all available time intervals including the event, iterative, habitual and reference time. This variability in time adverb modification is arbitrary and needs to be explicitly determined for each adverb. Apart from discerning the interpretation of Hungarian time adverbs, the conclusions have a more general impact. On the one hand, apparently homogeneous adverbs can have disparate definitions. On the other, it is necessary to permit explicit, arbitrary constraints on adverbial modification. It is also argued that time adverbs can impose non-local restrictions on the eventuality modified, strengthening the need for a powerful theory of adverbial modification.
The article deals with the role of the Greek goddess Hera and her Roman counterpart, Iuno, in the poetic treatments of the myth of Argonauts. The focus is put especially on Iuno’s character development in Valerius Flaccus’ adaptation of the myth. Iuno’s character in this work has already been discussed by Werner Schubert in his fundamental study (1991), in which he pointed out the remarkable approximation of Iuno fabulosa and Iuno civilis. Referring to this study, the article emphasizes rather the literary development of Iuno’s character. It is shown that Valerius Flaccus portrays the highest goddess not only as a peculiar helper (socia), as suggested by Schubert, but also as a permanent participant in an intertextual dialogue with the epic poems of Homer and Apollonius Rhodius. Valerius Flaccus’ aim here is to invert his literary predecessors’ accounts in a subtle and witted way (as Debra Hershkowitz has already presented).
In the second half of the 16th century increasing interest in Greco-Roman drama lead to a revival of the fabula praetexta, i.d. plays staging Roman history. One of the finest examples is the “Lucretia, tragoedia nova” by the Silesian writer Samuel Iunius (*1567). In dramatizing the Livian story the poet follows Greek tragedies (e.g. Sophocles, Aias), but first of all imitates Vergil by assimilating Lucretia to Dido. Due to further parallels in structure and narrative technique Iunius' play even emerges as a kind of dramatic counterpart to the Aeneid. The choice of the subject as well as its treatment seem to suggest that the author lent his voice to political criticism and Anti-Habsburg opposition.
In addition to several thousand archaeological features, forty-three settlement burials were also uncovered on the LBK site at Balatonszárszó-Kis-erdei-dűlő. The majority of the crouched inhumation burials came to light from the uppermost level of the settlement’s refuse pits. The study offers a detailed assessment of the settlement’s Neolithic burials together with the examination of possible patterns in the mortuary rites, as well as an overview of the culture’s graves and mortuary practices in the western half of the Carpathian Basin, i.e. in Hungary and Slovakia. The findings are compared to the treatment of the dead in other regions of the LBK distribution in Europe in order to identify possible local traditions in the light of similarities with and divergences from the general patterns in the mortuary rites practiced by LBK communities.
This article focusses on discussing the reason of existence of factors (
) in the three time periods (
) as it is recorded in the Vaibhāṣika *
and in the Sarvāstivāda works that postdate this text. The origin of this discussion is traced back in the earliest Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma works. Also the Chinese Sanlun philosopher Jizang (549–623), in his “
Shi’er men lun shu
”, a commentary on Nāgārjuna’s *
Shi’er men lun
”, raises this discussion. Here, references are made to the vibhāṣā literature. The treatment of the subject in the “
Shi’er men lun shu
” reveals (1) that the Chinese Sanlun (and Madhyamaka) philosophers were familiar with this discussion in Sarvāstivāda philosophy; (2) that they criticised the Sarvāstivāda viewpoint; and (3) gives evidence for a rise of Indian Madhyamaka philosophy and a place of origin of Nāgārjuna in the North of the Indian subcontinent.
How far can canon and language be sources of (dis)continuity in literary history? Continuity and discontinuity are concepts of such complexity that only philosophers can hope to make a successful attempt to define them in general terms. All I can offer is a tentative analysis of their significance for literary history. Since even such an investigation would ask for a lengthy treatment if conducted on an abstract level, I shall limit myself to reflections on how continuity and discontinuity are related to the concepts of canon and language. In the second half of my paper a personified abstraction called nation will also be introduced with the intention of making some remarks on the legitimacy of the terms national and world literature. The essay also raises the question of whether it is possible to write literary history in a postmodern world.
In 1913 Béla Bartók traveled to Algeria to research Arab folk music. He took with him the most modern technological device then available, the Edison phonograph, and recorded Arab peasants performing their music. Analysis of his ensuing scholarly documentation and free composition reveals the inspiration Bartók drew from Arab folk music, not only in his treatment of traditional musical elements — melody, rhythm, and harmony — but also in novel incorporation of exotic timbre, scales, drum modes, ululation, and exorcism. This paper elucidates diverse musical elements with examples from authentic folk music and Bartók’s compositions. What emerges is a remarkably comprehensive image of Arab music, seen through the lens of Béla Bartók’s unique scholarship and creativity.