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According to Hermeneutics ch. 4, the analysis of non-assertive sentences such as wishes, commands, etc. belongs to rhetoric or poetics. They are, however, examined neither in the Rhetoric, nor in the Poetics, where in ch. 20 their treatment is explicitly excluded from the art of poetry and referred to that of delivery or performance. In this paper an explanation is given for this discrepancy, based on an interpretation of Aristotle's rejection of Protagoras' criticism of Homer.

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Eustathios, the illustrious scholar and clergyman of the 12th century AD, wrote a commentary to Pindar’s epinician odes, from which only the proem survives. Eustathios treatment of the lyric poet, his ideas and criteria of literary criticism have not been re-assessed since Kambylis’ interpretation and text edition (1991). The aim of this paper is to supply this re-evaluation. Besides, a new Homeric allusion and some evidence for Eustathios’ productive imitation of Pindar’s style are dealt with.

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This paper is an analysis of the narrative structure of the chronologically final part of Ahmedi’s (d. 1413) primary work İskendername , in terms of its perception of time and history. In so doing, it may be possible to examine how early Ottoman historiography dealt with the past and the present. In fact Ahmedi’s Dastān has been extensively used by scholars so far, but only as the focus of discussions on the Ghaza thesis, however, the examination of Ahmedi’s eclectic and sometimes anachronistic history and his treatment of time will provide us a theoretical perspective to the early Ottoman historiography, which has not yet been done in Ottoman studies.

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This paper aims to reexamine the arguments concerning the three main problems of the fragmentary Euripidean tragedy Phaethon , i.e. what character and conflict lies behind Phaethon's excessive reluctance to the marriage; who the mysterious bride is; and finally, what kind of exodos fits in the dramatic context on the basis of the fragmentary textual evidence. In my discussion Goethe's reconstruction is dealt with closely; moreover, the poet's suggestions prove to be valuable not only artistically, but philologically as well. Some personal bias of his treatment nevertheless hints at a new articulation of the Phaethontic character in the Euphorion-episode of FaustII and a general reevaluation of the hybris-drama.

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This article presents a Government Phonology (GP) analysis of disharmonic words in Turkish. According to GP, phonology is exceptionless. Following this claim, I will argue that the generalisations intended to capture vowel harmony in Turkish had been stated in the wrong way, leading to disharmonic words as an artefact of a faulty analysis. Once this is remedied, the exceptions vanish, allowing for a unified treatment of harmonic and disharmonic words. This also takes into account further details of the Turkish vowel system which had not been incorporated in previous analyses, as well as distributional asymmetries between stems and suffixes.

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In this paper I discuss Kenesei’s (2005) syntactic derivational approach to s complex event nominals in Hungarian, and I compare it with previous lexicalist analyses. I demonstrate that the facts that, according to Kenesei, call for a syntactic analysis (e.g., binding and control phenomena, anti-agreement, negation, and aspect) can be captured in an appropriately developed lexicalist framework with at least the same degree of efficiency, consistency and in a sufficiently principled manner. I outline the most important aspects of such an analysis in the framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. I also point out that there are additional considerations which support a lexical treatment.

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The paper discusses the treatment of proverbial wisdom in Polish graffiti by drawing upon nearly 100 paremic structures collected on Polish Internet sites in the last decade. Proverbs in mural writing are classified as existential graffiti inscriptions due to their general rather than individualized reference. Graffiti writers challenge the potential of universal application of proverbs, paraphrazing the original forms, creating anti-proverbs in the process, with an eye to exposing the limited application of paremic wisdom or rejecting proverbs as entirely unsuitable in the context of modern Polish society. The paper explores the ways in which humour is employed in the use of proverbs in Polish murals.

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In the preface to his Septem sacramenta (1878–1884), Franz Liszt acknowledged its stimulus — drawings completed in 1862 by the German painter J. F. Overbeck (1789–1869). This essay explores what Liszt likely meant by his and Overbeck’s “diametrically opposed” approaches and speculates on why the composer nonetheless acknowledged the artist’s work. Each man adopted an individualized treatment of the sacraments, neither in line with the Church’s neo-Thomistic philosophy. Whereas the Church insisted on the sanctifying effects of the sacraments’ graces, Overbeck emphasized the sacraments as a means for moral edification, and Liszt expressed their emotional effects on the receiver. Furthermore, Overbeck embedded within his work an overt polemical message in response to the contested position of the pope in the latter half of the nineteenth century. For many in Catholic circles, he went too far. Both works experienced a problematic reception. Yet, despite their works’ reception, both Overbeck and Liszt believed they had contributed to the sacred art of their time. The very individuality of Overbeck’s treatment seems to have stimulated Liszt. True to his generous nature, Liszt, whose individual voice often went unappreciated, publicly recognized an equally individual voice in the service of the Church.

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Among Franz Liszt’s symphonic poems, Hunnenschlacht (“The Battle of the Huns,” 1857) and Von der Wiege bis zum Grabe (“From the Cradle to the Grave,” 1883) were inspired by the visual arts. With these works, Liszt attempted to translate painterly figurations into music; this intention is particularly embodied in his symphonic transformation of Wilhelm Kaulbach’s monumental fresco, Hunnenschlacht. Liszt was attracted by the idea of religious devotion and at the same time identified himself with the Huns. This paper considers the ways in which Liszt expressed the narrative plot and imitated the visual qualities of the Hunnenschlacht fresco by deploying innovative instrumental techniques and a progressive formal structure. This work illustrates Liszt’s interest in combining different art forms, and the prominent use of an apotheosis is an expression of the Beethovenian symphonic model. Liszt shared with early-nineteenth-century Romantics such as E. T. A. Hoffmann an interest in synaesthesia, associating colors with sounds. In Hunnenschlacht, he used the graphic illustration of the fresco as his primary source, yet he also attempted to convey the various tone colors associated with the figures. This interpretative process is explained in his preface to the score, in which Liszt describes the lights and colors associated with the Huns, the Romans, and the Cross. The peculiar treatment of instrumentation, including the use of wooden and sponge drum sticks, organ, unusual combinations of instruments, and an audacious treatment of dynamics, vibrantly depict the distinct colors or lights that envelop the principal figures in the painting.

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Hungarian has a number of apparently synonymous time adverbs that can measure the duration of time intervals. The paper explores these adverbs in some detail, and argues that contrary to appearances, none ofthem are freely interchangeable. The starting point is a discussion of the property of homogeneity that time adverbs are sensitive to. The paper argues for a specific treatment of homogeneity and a preliminary adverb definition based on that treatment. It is proposed that some, but not all, Hungarian time adverbs share the default definition. The diverging adverbs may (a) contain a covert frequency predicate or (b) not measure the duration of the time interval directly, but by determining an endpoint of the interval. Hungarian time adverbs also differ in the range of time intervals they can measure; some, but not all adverbs can measure all available time intervals including the event, iterative, habitual and reference time. This variability in time adverb modification is arbitrary and needs to be explicitly determined for each adverb. Apart from discerning the interpretation of Hungarian time adverbs, the conclusions have a more general impact. On the one hand, apparently homogeneous adverbs can have disparate definitions. On the other, it is necessary to permit explicit, arbitrary constraints on adverbial modification. It is also argued that time adverbs can impose non-local restrictions on the eventuality modified, strengthening the need for a powerful theory of adverbial modification.

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