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We studied the vegetation of 54 sandy old-fields abandoned at different times. We first surveyed the vegetation in 1998 and developed predictions about the spontaneous succession using the chronosequence approach. Afterwards, we repeated the survey in 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003, and based on this monitoring we tested the predictions of the chronosequence study. For both approaches, we analysed the changes in functional group composition during succession. According to the chronosequence study, the most important changes occurred in the youngest old-fields, abandoned 1–4 years ago: the species number and abundance of annuals, disturbance-requiring and anthropogenic species decreased, and those of perennials, grassland generalists, and species with low disturbance-tolerance increased. No changes were predicted for the older fields. The monitoring confirmed the predictions for the youngest old-fields. However, during the 5 years of monitoring several functional groups changed in their species number or abundance even on the older abandoned fields. Both of the methods showed that secondary succession on sandy old-fields is relatively fast. The chronosequence study provided a more static view of the processes, while the multi-year monitoring revealed that there were considerable inter-annual changes as well. With the yearly monitoring we can detect the effect of additional factors, such as land use changes (e.g., changes in grazing intensity) and yearly climate fluctuations on the direction and rate of secondary succession.

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This paper gives an overview of the methods employed in process-oriented investigations of translation competence and its development and describes their advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, it provides a survey of the findings gained in this field of research so far. It then focuses on desiderata. Special emphasis will be placed on the contrastive evaluation of methods, on longitudinal studies, as well as on the documentation and dissemination of process data. The design of one longitudinal study, TransComp, which investigates the development of translation competence in 12 students of translation over a period of three years and compares it to that of 10 professional translators with more than 10 years of experience, will be introduced. Furthermore, asset management systems will be suggested to make translation process data accessible to the scientific community and lay the foundations for a platform for information exchange between scholars working in the field of translation process research. At the end of the article, the contributions collected in this volume will be introduced.

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Empirical work in the social studies of science has progressed rapidly with the availability and development of the citation indexes. Citation counts have become a widely accepted measure of the quality of a scientific contribution. However, there are several problems involved in the use of citation counts as a measure of quality in science. First, citation counts are sensitive to popular trends in science. In this sense, they approximate a Nielsen rating for science. Second, the distribution of citations restricts their utility to separating the extremes. Third, citation counts are not sensitive to the ethical and moral dimensions of the quality of a scientific contribution. Fourth, citation counts underestimate the contribution of applied scientists. This paper examines these limitations.

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This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the national research system in Morocco. The exercise focuses on the period 1997–2006 and includes a comparison with South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, Tunisia, Algeria, Portugal and Greece. Ratings of highly ranked researchers are developed on the basis of their number of publications, number of citations and also their ‘h-index’ (or Hirsch index). Finally, we examine the empirical model set by Glänzel that related the h-index to the number of publications and the mean citation rate per paper for these ‘upper-class’ researchers. The use of this model confirms that the h-index is likely to reflect the importance and the quality of the scientific output of a given researcher.

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The determination of fluorine in the fluorides of 31 elements by prompt analysis using the reactions (α, p0), (α, α1), (α, n1γ) and (α, p1γ) on19F was carried out in a search for discrepancies that could point to molecular effects in range corrections. Data for each reaction were normalised and normalisation factors were compared. The results for each compound were in good agreement, but intercomparison showed that the accuracy of stopping power data and the applicability of Bragg’s Law were acceptable within ±8%.

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Az európai összehasonlító statisztikai adatok alapján kidolgozott Penrose-törvény szerint inverz összefüggés van az egy országban található pszichiátriai ágyak száma és a börtönben lévő populáció létszáma között. Célkitűzés: A dolgozat a börtönpopuláció és az elmeosztályi ágyszám közötti összefüggéseket vizsgálja 1990 és 2005 közötti időszakban Magyarországon. Módszerek: Az adatok a Központi Statisztikai Hivatal kiadványaiból származnak. A dolgozatban a szerző az összefüggések leírására matematikai statisztikai módszereket alkalmaz. Eredmények: A pszichiátriai ágyak száma és a börtönpopuláció létszáma között Magyarország esetében is megfigyelhető inverz összefüggés van. A kényszergyógykezelt betegek száma a vizsgált időszakban a jogerősen szabadságvesztéses büntetésüket töltő személyek számával párhuzamosan emelkedett, és a pszichiátriai ágyak számával inverz összefüggést mutatott. Következtetések: Mind a börtön, mind pedig az elmeosztályon történő kezelés a közösség egy társadalmi jelenségre adott szegregációs válaszaként jelenik meg. Az adatok alapján feltételezhető, hogy mindkét rendszerben többségében ugyanazon populáció tagjaival találkozhatunk. A jelenség mélyebb összefüggéseinek elemzése céljából az országos vizsgálat elindítása szükségesnek tűnik.

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Abstract  

Using 8 modifications of recently developed flexible water potentials, zeropoint energy differences between the isomeric water-dimer isotopomers differing in the hydrogen isotope involved in the hydrogen bond have been evaluated. In all the 18 possible pairs, the species bound through the heavier isotope is always lower in the energy term.

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assessments and reassessments of PGSI validity and reliability have confirmed its efficacy ( Currie, Casey, & Hodgins, 2010 ; Miller, Currie, Hodgins, & Casey, 2013 ). Some studies have used the PGSI without previously validating the instrument in their own

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Réka Viola, Kornélia Lovas, Zoltán Szabó, Zsuzsanna Czenner, David Meads, Stephen McKenna, and Gyöngyvér Soós

McKenna, S. P., Hunt, S. M.: A new measure of quality of life in depression: Testing the reliability and construct validity of the QLDS. Health Policy, 1992, 22 , 321–330. Hunt S. M

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Éva Erzsébet Magyar, Dalma Tényi, Ashley Gearhardt, Sára Jeges, Gallusz Abaligeti, Ákos Levente Tóth, József Janszky, Dénes Molnár, Tamás Tényi, and Györgyi Csábi

clinically significant distress/impairment is established). The original development of the scale found that the YFAS-C had adequate internal consistency, convergent, and incremental validity ( Gearhardt et al., 2013 ) and proved to be reliable and valid

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