Authors:N. Foster, R. Dannals, H. Burns, and N. Heindel
Pyrrolidyl triazenes prepared by interception of the diazonium transient in the Sandmeyer reaction of amines can serve as
useful intermediates in the iodination and radioiodination of aryl rings. Decomposition of such triazenes in the presence
of iodide is acid-catalyzed and is sensitive to choice of solvent, acid, and triazene structure. A condition variation study
by HPLC of four different solvent systems and two non-nucleophilic acids was carried out on the123I iodination of the triazenes of p-nitroaniline, p-anisidine and p-toluidine. This method has proven useful in radiolabeling
of two pharmaceutical analogs which were not amenable to labeling through the classic Sandmeyer method.
Authors:Farzaneh Aminpour, Payam Kabiri, Mohammad Boroumand, Abbas Keshtkar, and Seyed Hejazi
Applying different institutional addresses in the scientific production of a same university has underestimated the scientific
production of Iranian universities and consequently lowered their position in the international academic rankings for a long
time. The present study evaluated the scientific production of Iranian medical universities according to their institutional
addresses registered in the papers indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). By conducting a descriptive research
we retrieved total SCIE indexed of top Iranian medical universities and their respective hospitals and research centers from
the beginning of 1986 to the end of 2007. Then different variations of the institutional addresses of each university in the
author affiliation of papers were assessed. Finally the universities were ranked according to observing a uniformed format
for more registered addresses in SCIE. The findings showed unexpected diversity in the institutional affiliation of each university
in their SCIE indexed papers. Although “Tehran University of Medical Sciences” showed the most variation in registering institutional
addresses but ranked first according to observing unification for more addresses in the SCIE indexed papers comparing to the
other universities. The problem of applying different institutional affiliations in the scientific production of the universities
should be valued enough by the whole scientific community. Observing a uniformed format in registering institutional addresses
of Iranian medical universities would affect their scientific credibility and international ranks through representing their
real scientific productivity.
We investigate nonlinear parabolic variational inequalities which contain functional dependence on the unknown function. Such
parabolic functional differential equations were studied e.g. by L. Simon in  (which was motivated by the work of M. Chipot
and L. Molinet in ), where the following equation was considered:
where V denotes a closed linear subspace of the Sobolev-space W1,p(Ω) (2 ≦ p < ∞). In the above mentioned paper existence of weak solutions of the above equation is shown. These results were extended
to systems of functional differential equations in . In the following, we extend these existence results to variational
inequalities by using the (less known) results of . Finally, we show some examples.
When a question phrase bears a grammatical function in a subordinate clause but the interrogativity it introduces extends over a higher clause, there are two main possibilities in Hungarian: (i) the question phrase appears preverbally in the clause over which it takes scope, or (ii) the question phrase appears in the subordinate clause while the scope of interrogativity is indicated by the presence of another question phrase in the higher clause (the scope-marking construction). In order to understand the features shared by these two types of question and the ways in which they differ, this article explores the intonation of these types of multiple-clause constituent questions in Hungarian. The results of experimental investigation are reported and discussed, and the significance of these findings is evaluated in the context of wider typological variation in the formation of multiple-clause constituent questions.
Authors:M. Naghavi, A. Ebrahimi, M. Sabokdast, and M. Mardi
In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 74 barley accessions; 15 landraces (Hordeum vulgare) and 59 wild accessions (twenty-one Hordeum spontaneum, ten Hordeum bulbosum, thirteen Hordeum murinum and fifteen Hordeum marinum). A total of 66 alleles were detected at 12 SSR loci, with an average of 5.5 alleles per locus in the entire samples. The average number of alleles (4.2) per locus was higher in H. vulgare and H. spontaneum, reflecting more genetic diversity within these two species compared with the other species. All index values of genetic diversity revealed that there was higher genetic diversity within H. vulgare landraces than within the wild species, indicating that cultivation unlikely to have caused a loss of genetic diversity in cultivated barley compared with its wild relatives. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 31% of the total observed variation was accounted for among species. Based on neighbor-joining clustering, the five species were classified into three main groups: (i) all accessions of H. marinum and H. bulbosum plus two accessions of H. murinum; (ii) H. vulgare and H. spontaneum accessions, in small, separated groups; and (iii) the remaining accessions of H. murinum. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) for SSR data also supported the neighbor-joining clustering. These results have important implications for barley germplasm characterization, improvement, molecular systematics and conservation.