Universality through standardization is at the heart of scientific and medical practices. In this study we dealt with the
meaning, significance, and implications of standardization through “operationalization” in psychiatric diagnostic criteria
by focusing on the effects of the DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manual) III. What does “operational” mean?* The discussion
of “operationalization” in psychiatric diagnosis poses quite a challenge. Given the importance of semantics and the word networks
of everyday life in forming descriptions of symptoms and reaching clinical judgments, cultural differences in these semantics
inevitably have strong impacts on psychiatric diagnosis. The link between sensitivity and semantics in words enhances this
effect. In spite of the difficulties in approaching operationalization in psychiatric diagnosis, several attempts have been
made to standardize diagnostic criteria. Prominent examples include the DSM of the American Psychiatric Association and the
ICD (International Disease Classification) of the WHO. In this paper we analyzed the effects of standardized diagnostic criteria
by performing a content analysis of papers published in the Archives of General Psychiatry from 1978 to 1990. Our results
clearly show changes in the research questions, research designs, methodologies, target diseases, and selections of independent
and dependent variables.
Aim of the study: We assessed exercise dependence (ED), alcohol and nicotine use disorders, eating disorders, hypochondria and compulsive buying and in a population of customers of a Parisian sport shop. Methods: Five hundred consecutive customers of a sport shop were invited to participate. Diagnostic of exercise dependence was made with the Exercise Addiction Inventory and a specific questionnaire checking all diagnostic criteria. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for bulimia, alcohol and nicotine use disorders were checked and all subjects answered the CAGE and Fagerström questionnaires. Hypochondria was assessed with the DSM-IV-TR criteria and the Whiteley Index of Health Anxiety. For all parameters, customers with (ED+) and without (ED-) exercise dependence were compared. Results: The prevalence of exercise dependence was 29.6%. Subjects from the ED+ group were younger than in the ED-group (27.1 vs 29.8 years) and there were more women. They were more dependent on alcohol, had higher scores at the CAGE questionnaire. ED+ subjects more often presented hypochondria (23 vs 15%), bulimia and binge eating and they more often made gifts to themselves and to others. Conclusions: Exercise dependence appears as a frequent and almost always unrecognized form of behavioral dependence in non clinical population frequenting sport shops. It is frequently associated to chemical dependence and eating disorders.
Authors:László Pásztor, E. Dobos, G. Szatmári, A. Laborczi, K. Takács, Zs. Bakacsi, and J. Szabó
The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized digital soil mapping (DSM) products heavily based on legacy soil data, which still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at the present time. The paper presents three approaches for the application of Hungarian legacy soil data in object oriented digital soil mapping.
Authors:Omolbanin Jahantigh, Farzaneh Najafi, Hassanali Naghdi Badi, Ramazan Ali Khavari-Nejad, and Forough Sanjarian
The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm−1 of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.
Authors:Samira Samea-Andabjadid, Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani, Safar Nasrollahzadeh, and Nosratollah Najafi
This research was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (50 μM) on physiological performance of faba bean (Vicia faba) under different levels of NaCl salinity (0, 4, 8 and 12 dS/m). The experiment was arranged as factorial on the bases of randomized complete block design in three replications. Leaf Na+ content, root and leaf soluble sugars, antioxidant enzymes activities such as catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation increased, but K+, K+/Na+ and membrane stability index (MSI) decreased as a result of salt stress. However, foliar sprays of BAP and particularly SA reduced Na+ content and lipid peroxidation, while enhanced the K+ content, K+/Na+, soluble sugars, antioxidant enzymes activities and MSI under different levels of salinity. It was, therefore, concluded that exogenous application of these growth regulators (GR) can considerably improve salt tolerance and physiological performance of faba bean.
Authors:K. Szekér, E. Németh, Sz. Kun, J. Beczner, and P. Gálfi
DSM 20017 and
B3.2 to Caco-2 cell line was investigated in vitro. The adhesion ability of the tested strains was quantified with three methods: fluorescent-labelling, Gram-staining — followed by cell counting and image analysis — and plate count enumeration in order to compare the different detection methods. Results were in good correlation in terms of number of adhered bacteria, however, aggregate formation resulted in a significantly lower result with plate count enumeration in case of
2750. Percent coverage was found to be an appropriate method to compare adhesion ability of the strains, provided the cell sizes are similar. Gram-staining gives satisfactory results, however, fluorescent staining was not a suitable method in this study, since fluorescent dye hexidium iodide also labelled the intestinal cells.
The stability constants, β1, of the monochloride complex of Sm(III) have been determined in mixed system of methanol and water at 1.00 mol dm−3 ionic strength using a solvent extraction technique. The values of β1 increase with an increase in the mole fraction of methanol (Xs) in the mixed solvent system when 0≤Xs ≤0.351. The interionic distance of Sm3+−Cl− (dSm−Cl) in the mixed solvent system was estimated by applying the Gibb's free energy derived from β1 to a Born-type equation. It was determined that an inflection point of the variation in the estimateddSm−Cl againstXs was present in the vicinity ofXs=0.054. The inflection point ofdSm−Cl shows a value ofXs between those ofdEu−Cl anddNd−Cl previously obtained by us.
The use of thek0-standardization method in instrumental neutron activation analysis gives good accuracy and precision. The analysis time can
be reduced drastically by employing software for thek0-standardization calculations. In this work samples were irradiated in a TRIGA reactor and the gamma spectrum was analysed
by Sampo 90 and thek0-standardization by the KAYZERO/SOLCOI code (DSM Research). The efficiency measurement and the peak to total ratio at the
reference and other geometries were measured and tested for their accuracy by analysing some reference materials. Reference
materials such as SRM 1572 (Citrus leaves), SRM 1573 (Tomato leaves), SRM 1575 (Pine needles), IAEA Soil-7 (Soil) and SRM
1646 (Estuarine sediment) were analysed for the major, minor and trace element contents. The results were in good agreement
with the certified or literature values. The recently released IAEA 140 (Sea plant homogenates) was also analysed for 28 elements.
Authors:I. Abugassa, Y. Khrbish, S. Abugassa, N. Ben Faid, A. Bashir, and S. Sarmani
The paper focuses on the validation of the k0-method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) in the Tajura Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) via the analysis of several certified reference materials. The selected
reference materials were: SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves, SRM 1575 Pine Needles, IAEA-A11 Milk Powder, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder, RM IAEA-Soil-7
and RM IAEA-SL-1 Lake Sediment. The method is based on the PC version Kayzero/Solcoi software package issued by DSM. All the
samples, reference materials and monitors were irradiated in various positions of the Tajura reactor with different f and α. The parameters f and α (f — thermal/epithermal neutron flux ratio, α — parameter accounting for the non-ideality of the 1/E epithermal neutron fluence rate distribution) were determined using the bare triple monitor method. The results obtained
for all the reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values.
Authors:M. Küchler, K. Ecker, E. Feldmeyer-Christe, U. Graf, H. Küchler, and L.T. Waser
The detection and evaluation of changes in vegetation patterns is a prerequisite for monitoring programs. The Swiss mire monitoring program aims to assess the changes in mire vegetation in order to examine the efficiency of the management measures. A promising way to explore and detect vegetation structure and vegetation change is the application of predictive vegetation mapping that combines image classification and predictive habitat distribution models. These models deal with predictor variables derived from remotely sensed spectral data and from environmental variables such as a digital surface model (DSM). Low accuracy of environmental data to predict vegetation at the local scale is due to the difficulties to capture dominant fine-scale enironmental gradients. Using high resolution spectral and topographical data sets of 50 cm pixel size and below, the study presented here aims to improve the simulation of local-scale vegetation properties.