Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence method was used in the determination of Cr, Ni and other heavy metals content in wastewater of an engineering plant taken both before and after chemical treatment. Toxic effects of the wastewaters usingAllium cepa root tip cells were tested.
. M., Pulles M. P. J. & Visschedijk A. J. H., Incremental cost and remaining emission in 2010 of HeavyMetals (HM) resulting from the implementation of the draft HM Protocol under UN ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution.
Authors:K. Bunzl, M. Puhakainen, I. Riekkinnen, P. Karhu, W. Schimmack, T. Heikinnen, T. Jaakkola, V. Nikonov, V. Pavlov, T. Rahola, K. Rissanen, M. Suomela, M. Tillander, and M. Äyräs
The industrial pollution of an ecosystem, e.g., by heavy metals, might also affect the behavior of fallout radionuclides in the soils of these areas. To study such effects, we determined at various distances from the huge copper-nickel smelters at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula (Russia) and at a reference site: (1) the vertical distribution of fallout 137Cs,90Sr and239+240Pu in the soil, (2) the corresponding residence half-times in different soil horizons, and (3) the resulting external gamma-dose rates at these sites in 1 m height due to 137Cs in the soil. The data show that the residence half-times and the partitioning of the fallout radionuclides among the various soil horizons depend significantly on the extent of the heavy metal pollution at the sites. The resulting external gamma-dose rate in 1 m height due to 137Cs in the soil is, however, rather similar at the various sites.
Authors:Karine O. Moura, Eunice F. S. Vieira, and Antonio R. Cestari
attention has been paid to the direct microcalorimetric investigations of heavymetals interactions on naturally occurring materials. As will be shown, this data are invaluable for understanding the sorption characteristics at fish scale/heavymetal
Authors:R. Pietra, E. Sabbioni, A. Springer, and L. Ubertalli
Severe analytical problems are associated with the analysis of heavy metals at very low levels in biological samples. This
impose a high degree of sophistication of the NAA involving treatment of the sample before irradiation such as chemical separations,
physical treatments and biochemical fractionation, the experimental evaluation of interfering nuclear reaction as well as
the development of post-irradiation radiochemical separation. This paper treats of the problem related to the NAA of trace
elements in environmental biochemical toxicology focussing attention of the sources of the elements during the analysis. Typical
results and short discussion for every step of the analysis are reported.
Authors:M. Frontasyeva, T. Galinskaya, M. Krmar, M. Matavuly, S. Pavlov, E. Povtoreyko, D. Radnovic, and E. Steinnes
The results on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia-Herzegovina are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by INAA using epithermal neutrons. High values of Cl and V content in the moss samples at certain areas are suspected to be associated with fires in oil refineries damaged during the 1999 NATO military action.
Authors:A. Lucaciu, M. Frontasyeva, E. Steinnes, Ye. Cheremisina, C. Oprea, T. Progulova, L. Staicu, and L. Timofte
This is the first systematic study of air pollution from heavy metals and other trace elements throughout several industrialized
areas and national parks of Eastern Romanian Carpathians using the moss biomonitoring technique. Samples ofHylocomium splendens collected at 120 sites were analyzed by epithermal neutron activation analysis at the pulsed fast reactor IBR-2 at JINR,
Dubna, for a wide range of elements including heavy metals and rare earths (Na, Mg, Al, Cl,K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni
(by (n,p) reaction), Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W,
Au, Th, and U). Copper, lead and cadmium were determined by AAS. Certified Reference Standards of mosses produced for interlaboratory
comparisons in the European moss-survey 1995 were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. To present results in the
form of coloured contour maps the geographical information system GIS-INTEGRO was used. The regional extent of pollution with
specific metals was determined. Results reported are well consistent with those obtained in numerous recent projects carried
out in Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Bulgaria and other countries.
In a study of the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in different parts of Norway, samples of the mossHylocomium Splendens were analyzed with respect to 28 elements. The determination of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry,
while 24 additional elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. In samples from southernmost Norway,
a substantially higher concentration was found for elements such as Pb, Sb, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, and Cd than in
samples from places located in the more northerly parts of the country. The results indicate that sources which are to the
south and south-west of Scandinavia, contribute significantly to heavy metal deposition in Norway.
Authors:R. Singhal, M. Venkatesh, D. Wagh, H. Basu, T. Chavan, M. Pimple, and A. Reddy
Downcore variation of trace metals in sediment cores along the coastal line is one of the markers to assess the intrusion
of industrial pollutants into the aquatic environment. Fifty sediment core samples from the Mumbai Harbour Bay (MHB), were
studied for the trace element content. MHB is a recipient of effluents from different industries situated all along its coast
around Thane–Belapur region. The average concentrations of Titanium (Ti), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu),
Zinc (Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and complemented by analysing with energy
dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. In addition to this, depth profiles of K and Ca were also studied to assess the
homogeneity of the geological strata of the region. Trace metals such as Cu, Ni and Zn show enrichment between 16 to 28 cm,
whereas, uniform distribution through out the core was observed for K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe. Chronology of the heavy metal deposition
was predicated based on the average sedimentation rate (0.92 ± 0.08 cm year−1) derived using depth-wise 137Cs concentration profile in core of bottom sediment. The results of the analysis showed that MHB had received excess inputs
of Cu, Ni and Zn in the year 1981, 1988 and 1982, respectively. Surface concentration of Cu, Ni, Zn and Fe compared to the
reference site indicates moderate pollution in the recent years whereas for elements K, Ca, Ti and Mn, the values are normal
indicating MHB unpolluted for the latter elements.