Authors:C. Testa, D. Desideri, M. Meli, and C. Roselli
Suitable separation techniques were prepared for actinide,90Sr and226Ra determinations in environmental and industrial samples. Extraction chromatography with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) solutions was used. IN some cases, a powder of Microthene (Microporous polyethylene) supporting solid TOPO was prepared thus obtaining a material showing better storing and column preparation features.Uranium and226Ra were determined in phosphorites, phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum.Uranium, thorium and226Ra were also measured in the low specific activity scales of hydrocarbon production equipment:226Ra was found to concentrate in some parts of the plant so causing a radiation protection problem.Plutonium and90Sr were measured either in some Mediterranean Sea samples or in environmental samples collected in Antarctica. Some interesting sea sediment profiles were also obtained.All the chemical methods were verified by: a) adding some yield tracers (232U,228Th,242Pu); b) analyzing some certified samples supplied by IAEA and NIST; c) participating in some international intercomparison runs; d) using, when possible, both an analytical and a radiometric method and e) following the radioactivity decay or growth (90Y and226Ra).
Authors:A. Apicella, C. A. Beretta, M. A. Castiglione-Morelli, E. Martuscelli, L. Nicolais, and M. R. Nobile
Calorimetric and rheological characterizations of thermosetting resin formulations containing a novalac epoxy resin hardened with 60 to 120 parts per hundred of methylated maleic acid adduct anhydride are described. The calorimetrically determined epoxy conversion has been related to the gelation limits theoretically calculated from Flory's non-linear copolymerization theory and experimentally verified in rheological tests.
A procedure for the radiochemical purity control of99mTc-(2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) (DMSA), used as a renal scintigraphic agent is described. The proposed chromatographic system entails the use of two successive solvents, first MEK and second aqueous solution of 5% glycine, on the same supporting medium Gelman ITLC-SG. The procedure is fast and leads to separation and estimation of free pertechnetate, hydrolyzed form of99mTc and99mTc — DMSA. This system is superior to the others reported in the literature as the spots of the different species are more distinguished and more concentrated. Its reliability has been studied using dimercaptosuccinic acid kits of different manufacturers and the results have been checked biologically.
Authors:M. Ayranov, A. Strezov, A. Jordanova, E. Piperkova, and S. Sergieva
The radiochemical purity of MDP and HEDP has been determined by means of gel chromatography on Sephadex and thin layer chromatography
on plastic foil silica gel. The comparison of the two radiopharmaceuticals shows equal level of complex formation with99mTc. The biodistribution demonstrated that the application of HEDP allows earlier scanning than MDP. MDP and HEDP show equal
effectivity during the clinical investigations. There is no significant difference in the radiochemical purity within six
hours after the reconstitution of the freeze-dried kits. HEDP kit demonstrates shorter period of accumulation and equivalent
complex formation levels, so it can be used in routine nuclear medicine diagnostics together with MDP kit.
Authors:T. Yassine, M. Bakir, S. Shanan, and M. AL-Asaad
Iodination of meta-iodobenzylguanidine was carried out at optimum conditions. The labeling yield at these conditions was more than 95%. Further purification of the prepared compound increased the radiochemical purity to more than of 99.5%, this high purity was revealed in the quality of the images resulting from the use of the prepared compounds.
Radioactive nuclides emitting b+-radiation are used for labeling in PET diagnostic. Before the radioactive labeled agent can be used, the radiochemical purity has to be determined by means of two separate radio-chromatography methods. For HPLC, TLC, GC and CE special radioactivity detectors sensitive for b+-radiation are required, which fulfil the regulations of various international and national authorities. All conventional chromatography detectors in applications of HPLC, TLC, GC and CE like UV-absorption, fluorescence, reflective index, conductivity, amperometry etc. have an analog signal output 0-1 V. Therefore all signal recording and peak integration systems for chromatography have analog inputs of 0-1 V.
The available six types of Sephadex and one type of Sepharose have been applied in the separation of technetium fractions in99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals produced in our laboratory using the GCS technique. By this technique the chemical state and the percentage of99mTc-fractions have been determined. The resolution efficiency of some gel types were found to be significantly influenced by the pH of the eluent. The results obtained from the experiments indicated that Sephadex G-25 Fine was the best and can be routinely used in the radiochemical analysis of the following kits:99mTc-HSA,99mTc-DTPA and99mTc-HIDA and G-100 for99mTc-PYP. With99mTc-HSA and99mTc-PYP kits, 0.9% NaCl eluents at pH 3.2 and pH 2 to 2.5, respectively, were found to be necessary for the separation of99mTc-fractions. G-50 Fine was found to be the best gel between the others in the separation of99mTc-fractions in testing of the weak radiopharmaceuticals,99mTc-GH and99mTc-MDP. The development of99mTc-MDP with the eluent at the same pH as the preparation gives negligible interaction effect.
Gentamycin sulfate (antibiotic) was labelled with99mTc with high radioactive yield. Technetium species were studied using different types of sephadex on columns. Stannous chloride was used as reducing agent for heptavalent99mTc obtained directly from generator to lower oxidation state prior to labelling. Optimal pH was found to form the most stable complex. A lyophilized kit was prepared and it was stable for more than three months. Mice, rats and rabbits have been used as exprimental animals. Accumulation of more than 20% of the labelled formula in kidneys 30 minutes post injection in rats has been found. Gamma camera images in rabbit were clear enough for kidney delineation thirty minutes after injection.
An instant kit of cysteine (amino acid) to be labelled with99mTc was prepared. Optimal conditions were found, and a procedure to prepare the kit ready to use in liophilized form to gain the highest labelling yield. More than 95% labelling yield was obtained when99mTc (TcO
) eluted from99mTc-generator was added to the contents of the kit. Each kit contains 0.66 mg of SnCl2·2H2O as stannite and 66 mg cysteine in lyophilized form. The formulation of cysteine tin (kit) was stable for nearly three months giving labelling yield more than 95%. Using GCS technique, different species of technetium and labelled cysteine were identified when Sephadex (G-50, G-25) was applied. Biodistribution of the labelled preparation revealed that kidney was the target organ. The ratio of accumulated dose in kidneys/liver was greater than 2.