In the exhibition “Legacy of King Matthias. Late Renaissance art in Hungary (16–17th c.)” held in 2008 there were four thematically identical paintings – the “Nation's Tableaux” displayed side by side. Until now, four pictures of the kind showing the Holy Crown and the coats of arms of the provinces of the country were known: one in the Hungarian National Museum, one in the Szombathely Gallery, and two in the collection of the Trencsén (Trenčín) Museum (dating from 1673–76 and around 1800). The article describes a fifth specimen kept in the Dominican primary school in Kőszeg. Its inscription, deviating somewhat from that of the other four pictures, follows the fate of the Hungarian crown up to 1784. The client who commissioned it must have belonged to the opposition of Joseph II's policies.
Thomas Aquinas is usually studied as a metaphysician, this is not the reading given to him by three Renaissance philosophers. At the turn of the sixteenth century there were at least two schools of Thomists, one influenced by Avicenna and Scotus, and the other influenced by Averroes, a reading of Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas himself. The discussion below traces how the interpretation of Thomas' De ente et essentia was changed from being a text for metaphysics to one used for physics. One of the meanings of ens-being-was as a term that was coterminous with the object. As a result, the debate over the first thing thought or the De primo cognito debate centered around the meaning for the term ens, the following essay demonstrates how it moved from metaphysics to physics.
Renaissance humanists tended to disregard medieval scholasticism. But most of humanist anti-scholasticism was directed against late medieval exaggerations in the areas of conceptualism and nominalism. Therefore, it is interesting to find out whether these humanists had a precise and justified view of medieval philosophers and theologians, and especially of Thomas Aquinas. Two writings of humanists, which expressly deal with Aquinas, namely the Encomium S.~ThomaeAquinatis by Lorenzo Valla (1457) and the Opus aureum in Thomistas (1490s) by Johannes Baptista Spagnoli Matnovano give witness of the humanist philosophical approach to the saint and teacher of the Church. A look at these two treatises discloses some basic features of humanist thought, and ex negativo of the importance and specific value of Thomas Aquinas in the post-medieval culture. They also show samples of how monopolizing one authority might endanger its very acceptance.
The aim of the paper is to describe the language situation and the main features of the Aromanian dialect in the Prespa region. The ethnolinguistic group of Aromanians is represented in this region only by one family. Nowadays, this linguistic situation is an example of language death, as the younger generation no longer speaks the Aromanian language whereas the senior generation uses it in limited contexts. The Aromanian speech abounds with multiple examples of interference of Macedonian, which is the dominant language in relation to Aromanian in this situation. The Aromanian language is still used on a daily basis; however, it is spoken only by the senior members of the language community. We suppose that in this situation, there is little chance for the Aromanian language to experience its renaissance in Prespa.
Astrology plays a significant role in the Neo-Latin poetry of Janus Pannonius (1434–1472), the most renowned humanist of Hungary. The article investigates the various forms of astrological ideas in that part of his oeuvre where a specific interest in astrological topics can be witnessed: the works concerned are letters, elegies and epigrams composed in Hungary. Previous research into this topic has neglected to face the problem of the heterogeneity of astrology and to explore in detail the biographicalhistorical context, and some scholars have argued that Janus deeply believed in astrology. Instead, I will conclude that the appearance of astrological ideas can simply be explained by biographical, literary historical, intellectual historical factors. The argument concerns not only one particular person but also the intellectual life of mid-fifteenth century Hungary, and the habits of the Renaissance mind in general.
The motive of the “Virgin of Pity” that inspired many medieval and renaissance painters and sculptors can be found for the first time in Caesarius of Heisterbach's Dialogus miraculorum. He tells us about a Cistercian monk who had a vision of the victorious end times church. In his revelation, the monk saw the Cistercians being protected by the Virgin's mantle. This vision was not only the starting point of various sculptural works, but also a motive that several Dominican historiographers, who were looking for impressive proofs of the divine legitimation of their order, very soon adopted and transformed; furthermore, it was their aim to strengthen the corporate identity of the young Dominican order which resembled in many ways the Cistercians and the order of Prémontré. That Dietrich of Apolda used this vision in his biography of saint Dominic especially ensured the divulgation of this motive in mysticism and the historiography of other orders.
The events of September 11th have had a deep impact on theoretical discourses. A reality marked by conflicts challenges the
widely debated postcolonial theories which for a long time have described cultural contact in conciliatory, consensual terms
as “hybridity” or “Third Space”. In the wake of this paradigm shift there has been a renaissance of antagonistically organized
concepts such as Huntington’s “clash of civilization”, long considered obsolete. The rhetorical patterns of Franz Fanon, a
forgotten founder of postcolonial studies, have also experienced a revival in the daily press since 9/11. In this sense the
terrorist attacks are seen as the answer of the “wretched of the earth” to globalization.
The recourse to Fanon’s metaphors highlights how far the canonized postcolonial theories of Said, Bhabha and Spivak are removed
from their subject and how, due to their “fashionable” status, they have gained a problematic momentum. It also implicitly
questions the purpose of theories in general.
Besides a great number of public and private buildings in cities, in the course of his long career Ybl designed several country houses. Their number is ten, but the authorship of many more structures of this kind were traditionally attributed to him. In this article attempt has been made to establish the substantiated attributions. Ybl designed country houses mostly at the beginning of his career, and primarily for a group of patriotic-liberal aristocrats. These patrons and the location of their houses are the following: Count Lajos Batthyány, Ikervár; Count Pál Zichy, Nagyhörcsök; Count Ede Károlyi, Füzérradvány; Count Béla Wenckheim, Fás; Count János Waldstein, Várpalota; Baron József Csekonics, Zsombolya; Count Ödön Lónyay, Bodrogolaszi; István Bittó, Drávafok; Count Frigyes Wenckheim, Szabadkígyós; Count Gyula Károlyi, Parádsasvár. In this field Ybl resorted to styles that he otherwise seldom cultivated, such as Neo-Gothic and German Neo-Renaissance, and for the shape of the buildings, he preferred the elongated oblong.
The notion of fire/light/heat/energy is recognized as an integrating element in the pathway of ordering matter and society,
and its historical aspects are thoroughly reviewed. Fire is argued to be a philosophical archetype and its role in the early
concept of four elements is discussed. The Indian, Arabic and Greek historical bases are mentioned. Alchemy is briefly reviewed
as a source of the wider adoption of fire. The era of renaissance and the new age are also included. The message of fire/heat
is nowadays focused on the progress of civilization, with the assumption of engines as information transducers based on the
conscious exploitation of fire. The role of chaos is emphasized. Overall, a condensed but consistent view is given of the
various concepts that emerged during the historical progress of the understanding of heat (noting 61 references).
The article discusses an enigmatic, anonymous painting deposited in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest. On grounds of style and with regard to the figures' attire it can be dated to the first third of the 17th century. Its master is supposedly German, who was both inspired by Italian Renaissance portraiture and the art of his 16th century German predecessors, Hans Holbein the Younger and Hans von Aachen. The painting can be regarded a double portrait coupled with a still life. It depicts possibly the painter himself, who, assuming the century-old role of the fools, mocks a man for his obesity. Taking also in consideration the frugal meal before him and the inconsistency of his clothes, it expresses the dichotomy between temperance and intemperance, Christian moderation and earthly abundance, vitaactiva and vitacontemplativa.