Summary The assimilation of the Jewish minority (as well as the German and Hungarian ones) was widely discussed in Czechoslovakia after 1918. The situation was more pressing in the Slovak part, especially due to a large population of mostly orthodox Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia. Their political, economic, and social emancipation was in the beginning stages compared with other parts of Central Europe. Gejza Vámoš (1901-1956) addressed the forms and conditions of Jewish assimilation in Slovakia in his novel Odlomená haluz (Broken Branch, 1934). Vámoš himself came from a Hungarian-speaking Jewish family and was an eager adherent of assimilation. His novel was set in Upper Hungary (Slovakia) during the last years of the Austro- Hungarian Monarchy, but he dealt with assimilation from the perspective of the contemporary Czechoslovak Republic. He discussed the degree of assimilation in different regions of Central Eastern Europe, and claimed that it was more successful in the southern than in the northern part. He also focused on the differences between Jews in Hungary itself and in Upper Hungary. Vámoš wished to show that the precondition of successful assimilation is for the Jews to forsake their outdated religious and mercantile practices. Jews should be proud of their historical tradition and intellectual heritage, but they should strive to adopt the culture, as well as the (secular) worldview and mentality, of the nation they are in. This general doctrine of assimilation is exemplified by the story of a Jewish boy who unexpectedly changes his identity and, taking his non-Jewish father's name, also accepts his father's worldview. This narrative line contains obvious features of Bildungsroman: a change of attitudes and perceptions, along with the mixing of the races, could lead to a new, united mankind. Vámoš believed in the power of education and the natural sciences. His theory of assimilation encompassed various ideological sources, such as social Darwinism, modern Jewish Messianism, as well as ideas on nation-building (including Masaryk's). Vámoš probably wished to act as a mediator in relations between Slovaks and Jews, and to break with the tradition in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Slovak literature of portraying Jews negatively. Nevertheless, his book - in spite of its vision of a united mankind and its praise of Jewish heritage - contained numerous negative stereotypes of Jews. When excerpts of the novel were published, several lawsuits were brought against Vámoš. The discussion of Broken Branch was centered round several questions: What role would this book play in the contemporary political situation in regard to Judaism? What is the nature of the relation between reality and fiction? What are the limits of artistic freedom? The reaction to the novel showed the political polarization of Slovak society in the 1930s, and contributed indirectly to Vámoš's decision to leave the country in 1939.
Radioecologically the most important radionuclide generated by the Chernobyl accident is137Cs at present. The actual geographic distribution of the137Cs concentrations in the soil in Central Slovakia for 1995 is presented. On the basis of measured data the relationships between137Cs concentration in soil profiles and some local parameters (average precipitation, specific activity of40K, soil types) was studie. Some problems in the modelling and prediction of137Cs migration in soils are discussed too. The activity of137Cs was measured at 45 sites. Approximately 66% of total deposition of137Cs in the upper 10 cm of soil.
The results of radiocesium activity of some foodstuffs imported to the Slovak Republic in the period from January 1988 to July 1995 are presented. The analysed samples were homogenized, packed into 0.451 Marinelli beakers and then measured by direct semiconductor, -spectrometry for 10 000–50 000 seconds. The levels of137Cs in various foodstuffs varied quite widely from Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA)=0.4 to 80.2 Bq/kg. Concentrations of137Cs in fish and fish products were in general higher than those in beef and pork.
Authors:Florin Aliu, Besnik Krasniqi, Adriana Knapkova, and Fisnik Aliu
Risk captured through the volatility of stock markets stands as the essential concern for financial investors. The financial crisis of 2008 demonstrated that stock markets are highly integrated. Slovakia, Hungary and Poland went through identical centralist economic arrangement, but nowadays operate under diverse stock markets, monetary system and tax structure. The study aims to measure the risk level of the Slovak Stock Market (SAX index), Budapest Stock Exchange (BUX index) and Poland Stock Market (WIG20 index) based on the portfolio diversification model. Results of the study provide information on the diversification benefits generated when SAX, BUX and WIG20 join their stock markets. The study considers that each stock index represents an independent portfolio. Portfolios are built to stand on the available companies that are listed on each stock index from 2007 till 2017. The results of the study show that BUX generates the lowest risk and highest weighted average return. In contrast, SAX is the riskiest portfolio but generates the lowest weighted average return. The results find that the stock prices of BUX have larger positive correlation than the stock prices of SAX. Moreover, the highest diversification benefits are realized when Portfolio SAX joins Portfolio BUX and the lowest diversification benefits are achieved when SAX joins WIG20.
It is the theoretical background of the linguistic image of the world that serves as a base to the author to present Slovenian and Slovak magic formulae as the archaic strata of the language. She has chosen texts of the same type from the scope of Slovenian and Slovak peasants’ way of healing. The Slovak texts were collected by the author at the end of the 20th century, while the Slovenian texts which were set down earlier are quoted from Vinko Möderndorfer’s work. Apart from the common Central European attitude, the author also points out the unique, national, and linguistic features, all reflected by the linguistic image of the world.
Authors:Rene Mandelik, Milan Sarvas, Anna Jackova, Slavomira Salamunova, Jaroslav Novotny, and Stefan Vilcek
This report describes the first disease outbreak caused by chimeric swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV) on two pig farms in Slovakia in early 2015. The infection was introduced by import of two breeding boars which were placed in provisional quarantine in a unit not strictly separated from other healthy pigs in the same building. Subsequently, loss of appetite and diarrhoea were observed in both boars during the first three days in the isolation unit. The infection gradually spread to the farrowing area and throughout the farm in two weeks and later to another nearby farm. Yellow watery diarrhoea accompanied by dehydration and death was observed in piglets with a mortality ranging from 30 to 35%. In the absence of an available vaccine, the pregnant sows were dosed by mouth with a 10% suspension prepared from the intestine and faeces of infected piglets in warm water. Three weeks after dosing, new litters of piglets were born which remained healthy with no development of diarrhoea.
Authors:E. Gregová, D. Mihálik, S. Šliková, and Z. Šramková
High molecular weight glutenin and
translocation employing the standard sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE) and acid (A-PAGE) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods were classified in 43 Slovak wheat cultivars registered between 1976 and 2006. Total number of 9 alleles was detected at all
loci. The most frequent HMW-GS alleles were “Null” for
, 7+9 for
and 5+10 for
, respectively. At the same time these alleles also constituted the most frequent HMW-GS genotype and phenotype-0, 7+9, 5+10. Such HMW-GS combination was found in 48.8% of all genotypes analyzed in
. Eleven different HMW-GS genotype-phenotype combinations were found, occurring at various frequencies.
Natural and chemically modified zeolites from the Slovak Republic and Ukraine have been investigated as the adsorbents for the uptake of Cr(III). Model water solution of low radioactivity was used. The adsorption and desorption kinetics of chromium were established with the gradual radioexchange technique (tracer 51Cr) and flame AAS. The effect of the factors studied are examined and explained. The sorption coefficient , distribution coefficient KD, sorption capacity , sorption rate S, and leachability of Cr were calculated in neutral, alkaline and acidic aqueous solutions. The sorption capacity of the modified zeolites was found to be greater by a factor of 2 to 16 than that of the unmodified ones depending on the modifying solution applied. The leachability of chromium from loaded zeolites into the neutral solution was negligible. The leachability into alkaline and acidic solutions increased over 40%.