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Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a mammalian lectin induces apoptosis of T lymphocytes. Contradictory data have resulted in confusing knowledge regarding mechanism of Gal-1 induced T-cell apoptosis. In this paper we aimed to resolve this controversy by comparing cell death induced by low (1.8 μM, lowGal-1) and high (18 μM, highGal-1) concentration of soluble Gal-1. We show that lowGal-1 and highGal-1 trigger phosphatidylserine exposure, generation of rafts and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. In contrast, lowGal-1 but not highGal-1 is dependent on the presence of p56lck and ZAP70 and activates caspase cascade. The results allow the conclusion that the cell-death mechanism strictly depends on the concentration of Gal-1.

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Long-chain fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids and their esters have been separated by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with three mobile phases. New methods for calculation of the solubility in water (log W ) from experimental R M values and other physicochemical data have been proposed. The most accurate prediction of log W values of the acids and esters was achieved by use of four-parameter equations relating the R M values of the compounds, the numerical values of the Pyka topological index ( 0 B ), the electrotopological states of oxygen atoms of the carbonyl groups ( E 01 ) or of the oxygen atoms of hydroxyl groups ( E 02 ), and the dipole moments (μ ppm ) of the mobile phases.

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Effect of heat stress on the synthesis of soluble heat shock proteins (HSPs) and the regrowth in seminal roots of three cultivated and three wild wheat genotypes was examined. In regrowth experiments, 2-d-old etiolated seedlings were exposed to 23 (control), 32, 35, 37 and 38 °C for 24 h, and 35 and 37 °C (24 h) followed by 50 °C (1 h). The lengths of the seminal roots generally decreased significantly at the end of 48 and 72 h recovery growth periods at 35, 37 and 38 °C temperature treatments compared with control. Genotypic variability was significant level at all temperature treatments for the seminal root length. Also, genotypic differences for the number of seminal roots were determined among the wheat cultivars and between the wild wheat species and the wheat cultivars at all temperature treatments; but genotypic differences among wild wheat species were only detected at 37®50 °C treatment. Acquired thermotolerance for the seminal root length is over 50% at 37®50 °C treatment. The genotypic variability of soluble heat shock proteins in seminal root tissues were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Total number of low molecular weight (LMW) HSPs was more than intermediate- (IMW) and high- (HMW) HSPs at high temperature treatments. The most of LMW HSPs which were generally of acidic character ranged between 14.2-30.7 kDa. The genotypes had both common (43 HSP spots between at least two genotypes and 23 HSP spots between 37 and 37®50 °C) and genotype-specific (72 HSP spots) LMW HSPs.

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Abstract  

In this study, the entrapment of benzophenone (BZ) into supramolecular nanoassemblies prepared by mixing two water-soluble associative polymers (i.e. polymerized β-CD (pβ–CD) and dextran grafted with lauryl-side chains (MD)) has been investigated by using isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) and molecular modeling. ITC experiments have been performed at various temperatures (4 °C (277 K), 25 °C (298 K), and 37 °C (310 K)) to evaluate the interaction of BZ with pβ–CD in comparison with β-CD. The inclusion complexation for both β-CD/BZ and pβ–CD/BZ interactions was entropy-driven (|ΔH| < |TΔS|) when the temperature of the experiment was low (4 °C) and enthalpy-driven (|ΔH| > |TΔS|) with minor entropic contribution when the temperature was increased (25 and 37 °C). Using all the thermodynamic data obtained for β-CD/BZ and pβ–CD/BZ interactions when the temperature of the experiment was varied, the
\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\Updelta H\; = \;f(T\Updelta S )$$ \end{document}
plot was perfectly linear, which reflected an enthalpy–entropy compensation process. Finally, the combination of ITC data with molecular modeling provided consistent information in regard to the location of MD side chains and BZ inside the cyclodextrin cavity, as well as concerning the stability of the nanoassemblies loaded with BZ.
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis can cause life-threatening complications in which the immune response plays an important role. This study was designed to evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and soluble Fas (sFas) in cases with pulmonary tuberculosis due to confirmed M. tuberculosis infection. The study comprised 50 patients with M. tuberculosis classified to 13 complicated cases and 37 uncomplicated patients. A significant ( P < 0.05) increase was found in the serum levels of IL-18, IFN-γ and sFas in patients compared to controls and also in complicated cases compared to uncomplicated ones. Moreover, a positive significant correlation was found between serum levels of sFas with IL-18 (r=0.532, P <0.001), and with IFN-γ (r=0.37, P =0.008) and lastly between serum levels of IL-18 with IFN-γ (r=0.612, P <0.001). It is concluded from these results with the recent observations that IFN-γ levels are elevated after successful MTB treatment, suggest the possibility of enhanced Fas expression and then stimulating the infected macrophages to show an increased FasL-induced apoptosis. Modulation of FasL system by M. tuberculosis might represent an escape mechanism to evade the effect of apoptosis. Moreover, the elevated serum levels of IL-18, IFN-γ and sFas can be considered as pathognomonic markers suggesting pulmonary tuberculosis especially in complicated cases.

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Dolgozatunkban a hazai Talajvédelmi Információs és Monitoring Rendszerből (TIM) származó mintaanyagban ( n = 629) végzett összehasonlító vizsgálatok eredményeiről számolunk be. A vizsgálatok célja a hagyományos ammónium-laktát-ecetsavban (AL), a 0,01 M kalcium-klorid, valamint a Baker–Amacher extrahálószerekben meghatározott K-tartalom közötti mennyiségi összefüggések és ezeket befolyásoló talajtulajdonságok tanulmányozása, továbbá annak eldöntése, hogy indokolt lehet-e a hagyományos módszer mellett új kivonószerek használata a talajok K-ellátottságának jellemzésére. Az összefüggés-vizsgálatok során az AL-K és a 0,01 M CaCl 2 -K között közepes erősségű korrelációt ( r = 0,76) állapítottunk meg. Számításaink igazolták a korábbi vizsgálatok eredményeit, bizonyították, hogy a két kivonószer a talaj tápelem-tartalékait nem azonos mértékben oldja, illetve cseréli ki. Megállapítottuk, hogy a kötöttség, a pH, a karbonátosság és a humusztartalom módosítja a kivonószerek közötti összefüggés szorosságát. Az AL és a Baker–Amacher kivonószerek összehasonlításakor a tápanyag-ellátottsági kategóriánként meghatározott átlagos dK értékek a javuló ellátottsági kategóriának megfelelően nőttek. Az egyes kategóriákon belül azonban nagy szórást tapasztaltunk, és megállapítottuk, hogy az AL módszerrel jól ellátottnak minősített mintákban is előfordulhat K-lekötődés. Úgy véljük, hogy a tápanyagszükséglet pontos becslésére szükség lehet a hagyományos módszer mellett más kivonószerek alkalmazására is. Az AL mellett, kiegészítő módszerként javasoljuk a 0,01 M kalcium-klorid, valamint a Baker–Amacher kivonószereket, mivel a 0,01 M CaCl 2 -ban oldott kálium mennyisége, vizsgálataink alapján, a növény számára könnyen hozzáférhető kálium mennyiségével arányos, míg a Baker–Amacher kivonószer a lekötődés mértékét jellemzi.

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Harlioğlu, A.G. & Yilmaz, Ö. (2011): Fatty acid composition, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins of wild-caught freshwater spiny eel, Mastacembelus simack (Walbaum, 1792). J. Appl. Ichthyol. , 27 , 1123

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Abstract  

The solubility of two n-alkanes in commercial organic liquids, such as diesel fuel and jet fuel represent a problem to industry, because they precipitate in an unpredictable fashion. First we calculated the metastable enthalpy and entropy of fusion of the low temperature forms of the n-alkanes. We analyzed the solubility of alkanes n-C22H46, n-C23H48, n-C24H50 and n-C28H58 in ethylbenzene, m-xylene, n-heptane and gas oil. All systems seem to be close ideal, possibly with a slight positive deviation. We analyzed the solubility at constant temperature of the ternary system solvent C22H46-C24H50, C23H48-C24H50, C13H28-C16H34, C20H42-C22H46, C20H42-C24H50 and C20H42-C28H58, and looked at cloud points in various ternary systems. When the difference in the number of carbon atoms in the two alkanes is small, four or less, a metastable solid solution precipitates from the solvent. If the difference in the number of carbon atoms is six or more, the ‘equilibrium’ phases, or at least phases with low solubility precipitate.

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connection with the addition of such prebiotics to food products ( Picazo et al., 2019 ). FOS can be thought of as low molecular weight, non-viscous, water-soluble dietary fibers. Short-chain FOS can be produced by enzymatic synthesis from sucrose using

Open access

Abstract  

Extraction of Ce(III) and Nd(III) by 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) in the presence of water soluble complexing agent, glycine, has been studied. An improvement in separation factor between these lanthanides is observed. The extraction data have been analyzed theoretically, taking into account complexation of the metal in the aqueous phase with glycine and chloride ion and plausible complexation in the organic phase.

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