Trace elements were determined in South West African potsherds by instrumental NAA and by PIXE. The elements for which the
relative spread of concentrations were greatest were selected as indicators. From these the methods of the Minimal Spanning
Tree and of Nonlinear Mapping were used to classify about 60 specimens. Groups were tested by concentration, sum of concentration
and normalized concentration indices. Similar groupings were obtained irrespective of which analytical data or mathematical
techniques was used.
Authors:Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Nik Abdul Rahman, and Abdul Samian
Sungai Mas was an ancient port-kingdom located on West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia in a district of Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah,
Malaysia. The port-kingdom evolved as an entrepot since fifth century AD and continuously visited by international trader
from India, China, Middle East and Europe until eighteenth century AD. Sungai Mas was also one of the Indo-Pacific beads making
centers in Southeast Asia since sixth to thirteenth century AD and also produced pottery and brick. X-ray fluorescent analysis
(XRF) on Sungai Mas Indo-Pacific beads is carried out to determine whether the glass beads originated from Arikamedu, India
or locally made by community in Sungai Mas. Totally, twenty-two samples of beads and beads materials assayed by XRF were chosen.
Contents of nine major elements and nine trace elements, which might be present of flux, stabilizer, colorants or opacifier
were examined. The elements Si, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zr, Sr, Ba, La, U, Ni and Cr were detectable in all
samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of flux, silica or lead base glass, color and/or opacity
of the glass beads and glass samples. The result showed that Sungai Mas produced their own Indo-Pacific beads from sixth to
thirteenth century AD.
Authors:J. O. Santos, C. S. Munita, M. E. G. Valério, C. Vergne, and P. M. S. Oliveira
Chemistry fingerprint of materials helps determine provenance and technological production techniques, and, therefore, is
useful way to study interaction between prehistoric people. In this work 38 ceramic fragments from Justino and São José sites,
in Brazilian northeast, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The recognition of the compositionally
homogeneous group within of the database was performed by means of principal component (PC). The PC scores were calculated
on the matrix covariance of the log base 10 transformed concentration values, and grouping was sought in the PC scores using
Kernel Density Estimates (KDE). By using KDE from PC scores two chemically different groups were found. Discriminant analysis
was performed to assess the groups' validity. Despite of the pottery from Justino and São José sites present same technical
profile, different of the Tupiguarani and Aratu traditions, it was obtained that Justino and São José samples are constitute
of distinct ceramic pastes. This result can be understood in terms of the cultural influences in the preparation of the ceramic
past and that potteries analyzed are originate locally.
Kinetic evaluation of thermogravimetry data was used to understand the ageing behavior of beeswax used as an artists’ paint
medium on ancient mummy shrouds and Fayum portraits. Individual components of beeswax were subjected to dynamic thermogravimetry
to assess their evaporation rates, and three methods of kinetic analysis were evaluated for accuracy. The results showed that
although it is impossible to accurately predict the volatility at room temperature for individual components of beeswax due
mostly to their high molecular mass, relative trends and ranking of the volatility of the compounds can be obtained which
may explain compositional changes over time.
The attestations of the cult of the Goddess Nemesis in the Balkan-Danubian provincies from the beginning of the 2nd century AD do not seem to respond to a cultural, private and spontaneous, need of the local population. These evidences presumably appear on one hand as the consequence of a political and ideological project based on the achievement and on legitimation of Trajan’s imperium in these social contexts, and on the other hand as a response, an “Akzeptanz”, an acceptance on behalf of the Balkan-Danubian elites of Trajan’s propaganda.
Authors:D. Tenorio, M. G. Almazán-Torres, F. Monroy-Guzmán, N. L. Rodrígiez-García, and Luis C. Longoria
Ceramic samples found in San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico State, Mexico, were analyzed by means of NAA, PIXE, SEM and XRD. Statistical
treatments such as bivariate cluster and principal-components analysis were applied to the data set. The origins of these
ceramic samples were classified as local, regional and foreign.
Authors:M. Almazán-Torres, M. Jiménez-Reyes, F. Monroy-Guzmán, D. Tenorio, and P. Aguirre-Martínez
Obsidian samples from San Miguel Ixtapan Mexico State, Mexico were analyzed by means of neutron activation. Statistical treatments
such as bivariate, cluster and principal-components analyses were applied to the data set. Obsidians were identified as coming
from three important sources: Sierra of Pachuca in the state of Hidalgo, Zinapécuaro and Zináparo-Varal in the state of Michoacán.