The west to east oriented graves of an Early Avar period cemetery came to light at Szihalom-Budaszög in 1996. Two clay mugs turned on a fast wheel bespeak local Gepidic ceramic traditions. A wooden amulet capsule can likewise be linked to Pannonian and Transylvanian communities with a Merovingian culture. The gold and gilt bronze mounts of the capsule suggest the burial of an individual from the community’s elite. The gold mounts of the capsule are decorated with four masks arranged in a cross-like design. The stylistic and iconographic parallels to the masks point towards Italy and the regions north of the Alps. The capsule provides evidence for syncretic beliefs: the amulet was probably believed to have both pagan magical and Christian protective properties. The small cemetery was used by a local Gepidic community with good contacts with Western Europe living under the overlordship of the Avar Khaganate.
In the present paper,
we called attention to a so far unknown religious idea of the Bell Beaker -
Csepel group after observations made at the excavation of Budapest-Albertfalva,
archaeo-astronomical analyses, two special shards with channelled knob ornaments
and their analogues. The schematic representation of the Sun symbol appears,
although rarely, in the accompanying material (“Begleitkeramik”) of the Csepel
group (on grave ceramics, the Albertfalva fragment was probably originally
intended to be placed in a grave). The custom of the building of round houses
in the western group of the Bell Beaker culture and the burials with round
ditches in the eastern group make us think. The orientation of the houses
according to the winter solstice at Albertfalva and the existence of a
territory enclosed by a round ditch between the houses render the role of the
Sun in the daily and religious life of the population of the Csepel group even
more emphatic. The representation of the Sun in various forms (gold discs, incised
Sun motives) can be observed on nearly the entire territory of the Bell Beaker
culture yet we do not want to interpret this phenomenon as a Sun cult. The
religious beliefs of the Bell Beaker culture are extremely complicated, complex
and colourful, and Sun, an environmental factor that defines daily life, could
only be an element in it.
Hungarian excavations in the Theban necropolis have been extended to wide territories on the south slope of the El-Khokha hillock. In the 2005 season, the tracing of the epigraphic material of the mural decoration in the 19
Dynasy rock cut tomb of Nefermenu (TT 184) was completed. This monument, according to its characteristic religious, architectural and artistic layout, belongs to the so called “Khokha tomb-group” of TT 23 (Tjay), TT 32 (Djehutimes), TT 183 (Nebsumenu) and TT 264 (Ipiy). In previous seasons, the remains of a pyramid-like superstructure of a New Kingdom tomb were exposed, which probably belonged to Nefermenu’s monument. The research of the chronological position of this superstructure drew the attention to the structures in the upper section of the hillock, where architectural survey was carried out in the small and ruined New Kingdom rock cut tombs: TT 204, TT 205, TT 206, and (Kampp)-41-,-42-,-43-Excavation was also possible in one of these:-43-, and in a newly discovered, Middle Kingdom monument, a saff-tomb with eight-pillared façade, where material of secondary burials dated to the Third Intermediate Period also came to light. The analysis of finds from earlier seasons concentrated on wooden fragments, shabtis, funerary cones and cartonnages.
Since the 1960’s two approaches mainly based on ethnical and social differences have been applied in the course of the analysis of the 10th–11th century cemeteries of the Carpathian Basin. However, the social classification of certain cemeteries is problematic. The division considered applicable to the entire 10th–11th century settlement area (tribal and clan aristocracy — middle class — commoners) does not stand its ground anymore; the cemeteries known today cannot be interpreted as their direct archaeological projections. Families or larger communities of equal status or the same social group could have been greatly different regarding their appearance, inheritance, wealth, agricultural practices, and thus their archaeological appearance. The division of sites on ethnical grounds is a similar issue. The new approach focuses on the duration of the cemeteries’ usage, and in connection with this, the number of their graves. I illustrate this with a settlement historical image outlined by the review of the find material of the Tisza—Maros—Körös interfluve. I observed 133 sites in this region which were mostly fractional, ranging from a few graves to dozens of burials. Taking all these aspects into consideration, hereunder I only have an opportunity to briefly outline a picture, according to which the cemeteries of this region are arranged in six larger blocks. Their characteristics are partly different from each-other.
In recent years the ideological premises and practices of early medieval funerary rituals, which are extremely complex and largely still unexplored, have become a highly topical subject in the field of European historiography. Indeed, from Late Antiquity onwards the presence and integration of different cultural traditions, and the rapid establishment and spread of Christianity led to the development of new social models of behaviour, which are not always easy to decipher, in terms of both settlements and the relationship with death and the forms in which it was represented. While archaeological research allows us to make contact with the material results of these new models of behaviour, it is not always straightforward — particularly for funerary practices — to identify the ensuing system of values and cultural models. In some cases we may suppose that material forms of apparently similar rituals are actually the fruit of different motivations and mental universes. Consequently, there is a strong need to acquire a better understanding of the process of reciprocal acculturation that occurred in the Roman-Byzantine and Germanic worlds between the 5th and 7th centuries in the sphere of funerary rituals and, in particular, the relationship between burials and places of worship, which appears to be the area able to offer the most useful clues regarding the methods and dating of the acquisition of Roman customs — at least on an outward level — by the Langobard elite.
László Kovács has recently proposed a classification of the 10th–12th-century cemeteries of Hungary and he associated one group of burial grounds with the nomadic campsites of the ancient Hungarians. The present author challenges this view, pointing out that the greater part of the ancient Hungarian population did not pursue a nomadic life-style at the time of the Conquest (895) and that hydrological conditions in the Carpathian Basin made any eastern-type nomadism impossible. Thus, the still nomadic groups of the ancient Hungarian population too became sedentary during the 10th century, meaning that the name given to the cemeteries in question is erroneous.
The simultaneous determination of multiple actinide isotopes in samples where total quantity is limited can sometimes present
a unique challenge for radioanalytical chemists. In this study, re-determination of 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am for soils collected and analyzed approximately three decades ago was the goal, along with direct determination of 241Pu. The soils had been collected in the early 1970’s from a shallow land burial site for radioactive wastes called the Subsurface
Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Lab (INL), analyzed for 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am, and any remaining soils after analysis had been archived and stored. We designed an approach to reanalyze the 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am and determine for the first time 241Pu using a combination of traditional and new radioanalytical methodologies. The methods used are described, along with estimates
of the limits of detection for gamma-and alpha-spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting. Comparison of our results
to the earlier work documents the ingrowth of 241Am from 241Pu, and demonstrates that the total amount of 241Am activity in these soil samples is greater than would be expected due to ingrowth from 241Pu decay.
Authors:H.-S. Kim, H.-S. Yang, H.-J. Kim, B.-J. Lee, and T.-S. Hwang
Summary In this study, the thermal properties of agro-flour-filled polybutylene succinate (PBS) bio-composites were investigated. PBS is one of the biodegradable polymers made from the condensation reaction of glycols and dicarboxylic acid and is naturally degraded by natural soil burial system. The thermal properties of the bio-composites were analyzed according to the agro-flour content and mesh size. On increasing agro-flour content, the thermal stability, degradation temperature and derivative thermogravimetric curve (DTGmax) temperature of the bio-composites decreased while the ash content increased. The thermal degradation of the bio-composites was not affected by agro-flour mesh size. The glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures of the bio-composites were not significantly changed. The storage modulus (E’) of the bio-composites was higher than that of neat PBS, because the incorporation of agro-flour increased the stiffness of the bio-composites. At higher temperatures, E’ of the bio-composites decreased due to the increasing viscosity and chain mobility of neat PBS. The thermal properties of bio-composites have an important effect on the manufacturing system and application methods.
On 18 March 1893 the opera Toldi by Ödön (Edmund von) Mihalovich (1842–1929) was premiered at the Royal Hungarian Opera House in Budapest. Three month later Ferenc Erkel, founder and single most important composer of the Hungarian national opera died. One of the funeral speeches at his burial was held by Mihalovich. This gesture was meant as a symbolic mounting of the guard on the national operatic scene. However, Toldi, written on a libretto based on Toldi szerelme (Toldi’s Love), the middle epic of János Arany’s Toldi trilogy, proved to be unsuccesful. It was staged again as Toldi’s Love in 1895 after a thorough revision. One cannot overlook the fact that in the newly composed third act Mihalovich wanted to write the loyalist counterpart of the conflictuous third act in Erkel’s Bánk bán. The paper discusses the question whether the first and only opera on a Hungarian text by the solid Wagnerite Mihalovich could at the time fulfil the official national expectations and become the representative national opera of the Millennium, that is, the Thousand Year Jubilee of the Carpathian Basin’s conquest by the Hungarian tribes, celebrated in 1896.
210Pb,226Ra and137Cs profiles have been measured for sediment cores from three locations in Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada. Compaction of the sediment with depth of burial is taken into account in calculating recent sedimentation rates and age profiles at these locations from the excess210Pb profiles. The rates are 1.803+0.592 cm·y–1 (0.254±0.083 g·cm–2·y–1), 0.101±0.017 cm·y–1 (0.036+0.006 g·cm–2·y–1), and 0.795±0.218 cm·y–1 (0.076±0.021 g·cm–2·y–1). The corresponding fluxes of excess210Pb to sediment/water interface are determined to be 1.652, 0.253, and 1.123 pCi·cm–2·y–1, respectively. The anomalies observed in the radionuclide concentration profiles are attributed to physical mixing. It is postulated that the significantly higher flux of210Pb observed at one of the locations is due to inputs from Trent River which joins the Bay near this location.