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Az esszé a magyar társadalom, gazdaság és politika elemzését adja – nemzetközi kitekintéssel, a hazai adatok, tendenciák, trendek bemutatásával – a munkaügyi törvénykezést (a Munka Törvénykönyvét és az egész közszolgálati jogszabály-dzsungelt) alapjaiban megváltoztató kormányzati tervekkel és törvényi normaszöveggel összefüggésben. Az elemzés – munkavállalói szempontok kiemelt szerepeltetésével – részletesen foglalkozik az új Munka Törvénykönyvvel. A szerző az alkotmányozás, az állami szerep módosulása, a társadalmi egyeztetés átalakítása és egyéb törvények folyamatába ágyazza az MT tervezetét. Ebben a gondolatrendszerben fogalmazza meg javaslatait a kormányzati tervekkel szemben.

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Az esszé a magyar társadalom, gazdaság és politika elemzését adja – nemzetközi kitekintéssel, a hazai adatok, tendenciák, trendek bemutatásával – a munkaügyi törvénykezést (a Munka Törvénykönyvét és az egész közszolgálati jogszabálydzsungelt) alapjaiban megváltoztató kormányzati döntésekkel összefüggésben. A tanulmány – munkavállalói szempontok kiemelt szerepelte­tésével – részletesen foglalkozik az új Munka Törvénykönyvvel. A szerző az alkotmányozás, az állami szerep módosulása, a társadalmi egyeztetés átalakítása és egyéb törvények folyamatába ágyazza az MT elemzését. Ebben a gondolatrendszerben fogalmazza meg kezdeményezéseit, javaslatait is a kormányzati döntésekkel szemben.

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Abstract  

Thermal decomposition of magnesium salts of organic acids used in medicine (Mg acetate, Mg valproate, Mg lactate, Mg citrate, Mg hydrogen aspartate, Zn hydrogen aspartate) was analyzed by thermoanalytical, calorimetrical, and computational methods. Thermoanalytical studies were performed with aid of a derivatograph. 50-, 100-, and 200-mg samples were heated in a static air atmosphere at a heating rate of 3, 5, 10, and 15 °C min−1 up to the final temperature of 700–900 °C. By differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG), and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) methods, it has been established that thermal decomposition of the salts under study occurs via two stages. The first stage (dehydratation) was distinctly marked on the thermoanalytical curves. Calorimetrical studies were carried out by using of a heat-flux Mettler Toledo differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) system. Ten milligram samples of compounds under study were heated in the temperature range from 20 to 400 °C at a heating rate of 10 and 20 °C min−1 under an air stream. The studies showed that the values of transitions heats and enthalpies of dehydration for investigated salts varied with the increasing of heating rate. For chemometric evaluation of thermoanalytical results, the principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. This method revealed that points on PC1 versus PC2 diagrams corresponding to the compounds of similar chemical constitution are localized in the similar ranges of the first two PC’s values. This proves that thermal decomposition reflects similarity in the structure of magnesium salts of organic acids.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Carla Taramasco, Jean-Philippe Cointet, and Camille Roth

Abstract  

This paper quantitatively explores the social and socio-semantic patterns of constitution of academic collaboration teams. To this end, we broadly underline two critical features of social networks of knowledge-based collaboration: first, they essentially consist of group-level interactions which call for team-centered approaches. Formally, this induces the use of hypergraphs and n-adic interactions, rather than traditional dyadic frameworks of interaction such as graphs, binding only pairs of agents. Second, we advocate the joint consideration of structural and semantic features, as collaborations are allegedly constrained by both of them. Considering these provisions, we propose a framework which principally enables us to empirically test a series of hypotheses related to academic team formation patterns. In particular, we exhibit and characterize the influence of an implicit group structure driving recurrent team formation processes. On the whole, innovative production does not appear to be correlated with more original teams, while a polarization appears between groups composed of experts only or non-experts only, altogether corresponding to collectives with a high rate of repeated interactions.

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Granular activated carbon loaded with aniline,o-nitroaniline oro-nitrophenol, regenerated at relatively low temperature (450° in N2 atmosphere), shows losses of cyclic adsorption performances (about 5 % per cycle) comparable to those occurring with standard thermal regeneration (950° in controlled atmosphere). Adsorbate build-ups and related surface modifications have been determined.

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Abstract  

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of some monovalent counter-ions (NH4 +, K+ and Cs+) on thermal behavior of polyoxometalates derived from H3PMo12O40 (HPM) and H4PVMo11O40 (HPVM) by replacing the protons. The IR and UV-VIS-DRS spectra of some acid and neutral NH4 +, K+, Cs+ salts, which derived from HPM and HPVM, confirmed the preservation of Keggin units (KU) structure. The X-ray diffraction spectra clearly showed the presence of a cubic structure. The non-isothermal decomposition of studied polyoxometalates proceeds by a series of processes: the loss of crystallization water; the loss of O2 accompanying with a reduction of V5+→V4+ and Mo6+→Mo5+; the loss of constitution water started at 360C for HPVM salts and 420C for HPM salts; the decomposition of ammonium ion over 420C with NH3, N2 and H2O elimination and simultaneous processes of reduction (V5+→ V4+ and Mo6+→ Mo5+ or Mo4+) associating with endothermic effects; reoxidation of Mo5+, Mo4+ and V4+with a strong exothermic effect; destruction of KU to the oxides: P2O5, MoO3 and V2O5 and the crystallization of MoO3.

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A tanulmány az egészségszociológia, a szociális ökológia és a médiademokrácia korrelációját demonstrálja. A mai társadalmakban a média szerepe megkérdőjelezhetetlen az egészségre és a környezetre vonatkozó információk terjesztésében. A 2011. évi magyar Alaptörvény XXI. cikkelyének (1) bekezdése szerint mindenkinek joga van az egészséges környezethez. A környezetvédő média előmozdíthatja a környezeti igazságosság, a környezeti nevelés, a környezetvédő gazdaság stb. ügyét. Mindezek szükségesek ahhoz, hogy olyan társadalmat teremtsünk, ahol az egészséges környezet objektív érték. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 821–823.

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The principle of free-of-charge health care services is written in the Ukrainian Constitution. However, the state fails to implement this principle in practice. Our analysis confirms that in spite of the proclaimed free-of-charge health care services, many Ukrainian patients pay for health care services and these payments are considerable. As much as 57% and 73% of patients using out-patient and in-patient services respectively reported having spent money for this. Among those who paid for health care services, the average annual expenditure is 636 UAH for out-patient services and 2,019 UAH for hospital services. Patients who paid formally on average spent 555 UAH for out-patient services per year, while those who paid informally, spent about 337 UAH. This unregulated patient payment system is a threat to the population’s health as it prevents many patients from obtaining the health care that they need. Hence, the current’ free-of-charge’ system does not work properly and cannot sustain the health of the nation any more. There is a need for a thoroughly designed official and transparent payment system as well as structural financial reforms.

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The Article gives a general overview of the Hungarian constitutional and legal framework for the participation of national minorities in the decision-making. The relatively low number of people belonging to national minorities in Hungary as well as the scattered patterns of their settlement and some aspects of the Hungarian legal traditions underlie the choice of the so called personal autonomy approach. The minorities can establish via a special electing mechanism local and national self-governments enjoying consultative and truly public law type rule-making and administrative competences. Having given the proper interpretation of the relevant article of the Constitution, the Constitutional Court also contributed to the birth of the Act on the Rights of Minorities. The basic reason behind the creation of a very complicated, multilevel institutional complex is that in this way, educational and cultural needs of minorities of different scale can be represented in a relatively coherent manner. This does not exclude at all the possibility of bringing modifications to the legal text in the light of a decade's experience.

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In 1918, Slovenia became a constituent part of Yugoslavia. After the Second World War, Yugoslavia was reconstituted as a socialist state. When the attempts to turn Yugoslavia into a democratic country failed, Slovenia decided to become independent. As it is reflected in its new Constitution (1991), Slovenia is designed as a parliamentary republic, as a unitary state with local self-government and is strives to become a social state. During the transition from socialism, Slovenian law faced numerous challenges like the privatization of economy. The political and legal transition is still taking place. Hopefully, the entry to the European Union will give it new dimensions. Between the two world wars, Slovenian legal science was especially influenced by Austrian-German legal positivism; although the legal-comparative, sociological and axiological methods were important as well. After the Second World War, in some critical periods an apologetic legal positivism gained the upper hand in certain areas. On the other hand, new legal institutes and departments furthered the development of new sciences (criminology, sociology of law, political economy, public administration). New scientific areas emerged (comparative commercial law, comparative labour law and the law of the European Union). Some legal sciences (like criminal law) have been enriched by additional (sociological, axiological and comparative methods) methods.

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