Authors:J. Ahmadi, A. Pour-Aboughadareh, S. Fabriki-Ourang, and A. A. Mehrabi
Glutenin and gliadin subunits play a key role in flour processing quality by network formation in dough. Wild relatives of crops have served as a pool of genetic variation for decades. In this study, 180 accessions from 12 domesticated and wild relatives of wheat were characterized for the glutenin and gliadin genes with allele-specific molecular markers. A total of 24 alleles were detected for the Glu-A3 and Gli-2A loci, which out of 19 amplified products identified as new alleles. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 90 and 65% of the genetic diversity were partitioned within two Aegilops and Triticum genera and their species, respectively. Furthermore, all glutenin and gliadin analyzed loci were polymorphic, indicating large genetic diversity within and between the wild species. Our results revealed that allelic variation of Glu-3A and Gli-As.2 is linked to genomic constitutions so that, Ae. caudata (C genome), Ae. neglecta (UM genome), Ae. umbellulata (U genome) and T. urartu (Au genome) harbor wide variation in the studied subunits. Hence, these species can be used in wheat quality breeding programs.
Authors:Andriy Danyliv, Tetiana Stepurko, Irena Gryga, Milena Pavlova, and Wim Groot
The principle of free-of-charge health care services is written in the Ukrainian Constitution. However, the state fails to implement this principle in practice. Our analysis confirms that in spite of the proclaimed free-of-charge health care services, many Ukrainian patients pay for health care services and these payments are considerable. As much as 57% and 73% of patients using out-patient and in-patient services respectively reported having spent money for this. Among those who paid for health care services, the average annual expenditure is 636 UAH for out-patient services and 2,019 UAH for hospital services. Patients who paid formally on average spent 555 UAH for out-patient services per year, while those who paid informally, spent about 337 UAH. This unregulated patient payment system is a threat to the population’s health as it prevents many patients from obtaining the health care that they need. Hence, the current’ free-of-charge’ system does not work properly and cannot sustain the health of the nation any more. There is a need for a thoroughly designed official and transparent payment system as well as structural financial reforms.
Scientific observers as well politicians have noted for a long time that European integration is a process led by the elites but supported much less enthusiastically by the public at large. The first part of this paper documents systematically and for the first time how pervasive the split between elites and citizens has become over the last decades; the rejection of the “Constitution for Europe” by clear majorities of the French and Dutch voters in 2005 was only the last and most spectacular event in this regard. The paper proposes two theses which help to explain this split: (1) European integration has brought and still brings many advantages to the powerful elites involved, the political, economic and new “Eurocratic” elites; (2) for the population at large, the gains from integration are much less obvious; significant subsections of the populations in different EU member countries have been affected negatively by integration. These theses are documented by empirical evidence from many different sources: Data about the origins, careers and privileges of European politicians and bureaucrats; historical and contemporary data about the role of economic interests and the successful strategies of economic elites concerning integration; statistical data about the socioeconomic development of the EU and “Euroland” compared to other large advanced countries and macro-regions of the world; and survey data about the perceptions and evaluations of European integration both among the elites and the populations in the different member states.
The present study deals with language issues and language related strategies in international commercial arbitration, focusing on the time period prior to the constitution of the arbitral tribunal. The issue of language becomes a part of party strategies, and it is also one of the questions which needs to be heeded in order to establish efficient arbitration. The first part of the study deals with choice made by the parties, strategic considerations behind such a choice, and consequences of a choice made. Consequences are scrutinized regarding both the parties and the arbitrators. Attention is also devoted to the interrelation between choice of language and choice of law. The second section deals with situations where the parties have failed to make a choice. In this situation the parties and the arbitrators have no firm guidance, but they may have some points of support on the grounds of which they may anticipate the language of the proceedings, and may prepare for the arbitration proceedings. The third part of the study deals with various facets of language issues emerging in court proceedings in assistance of starting arbitration. The question is raised whether the judges who are appointing arbitrators could and should verify the language abilities of the prospective arbitrators.
Authors:Carla Taramasco, Jean-Philippe Cointet, and Camille Roth
This paper quantitatively explores the social and socio-semantic patterns of constitution of academic collaboration teams.
To this end, we broadly underline two critical features of social networks of knowledge-based collaboration: first, they essentially
consist of group-level interactions which call for team-centered approaches. Formally, this induces the use of hypergraphs and n-adic interactions, rather than traditional dyadic frameworks of interaction such as graphs, binding only pairs of agents. Second, we advocate the joint consideration of structural and semantic features, as collaborations
are allegedly constrained by both of them. Considering these provisions, we propose a framework which principally enables
us to empirically test a series of hypotheses related to academic team formation patterns. In particular, we exhibit and characterize
the influence of an implicit group structure driving recurrent team formation processes. On the whole, innovative production
does not appear to be correlated with more original teams, while a polarization appears between groups composed of experts
only or non-experts only, altogether corresponding to collectives with a high rate of repeated interactions.
Authors:Wojciech Sodkiewicz, Barbara Apolinarska, and Teresa Sodkiewicz
The aim of this work was to distinguish between chromosomes of A-genome of 6x-triticale and A
and to evaluate the efficiency of distinguishing secondary tetraploid triticale lines varying in A/A
chromosome substitutions. These secondary tetraploid lines were developed by crossing of this hexaploid triticales with the synthetic allotetraploid
T. monococcum/S. cereale
RR) as a male parent. The comparative C-banding showed that chromosomes of
are less easily stained than are chromosomes of hexaploid triticale. Precise differential staining of tetraploid triticale lines with complete A genome distinguished chromosomes originating from A
-genome of primary A
RR allotetraploid and those substituted from A-genome of 6x-triticale. Seventeen different chromosome constitutions of tetraploid triticale with complete A-genome were identified. The assessed substitutions showed close linkage with several phenotypic traits. Chromosomes 2A, 4A, 5A and 6A participated in substitutions with significantly higher frequency than other chromosomes of A-genome.
In 1918, Slovenia became a constituent part of Yugoslavia. After the Second World War, Yugoslavia was reconstituted as a socialist state. When the attempts to turn Yugoslavia into a democratic country failed, Slovenia decided to become independent. As it is reflected in its new Constitution (1991), Slovenia is designed as a parliamentary republic, as a unitary state with local self-government and is strives to become a social state. During the transition from socialism, Slovenian law faced numerous challenges like the privatization of economy. The political and legal transition is still taking place. Hopefully, the entry to the European Union will give it new dimensions. Between the two world wars, Slovenian legal science was especially influenced by Austrian-German legal positivism; although the legal-comparative, sociological and axiological methods were important as well. After the Second World War, in some critical periods an apologetic legal positivism gained the upper hand in certain areas. On the other hand, new legal institutes and departments furthered the development of new sciences (criminology, sociology of law, political economy, public administration). New scientific areas emerged (comparative commercial law, comparative labour law and the law of the European Union). Some legal sciences (like criminal law) have been enriched by additional (sociological, axiological and comparative methods) methods.
Europe is not only the land of origin, but also the principal keeper of social rights, since it is associated with the concept of Europeanism. The obvious social restrictions in Hungary as well as in other countries of Europe in recent years make it absolutely reasonable to examine to what social-economic context the discernible withdrawal of welfare services provided by the state is attributable. The similar manifestations are supported by no means by the same system of social conditions. As to its basis and dating back to its historical origin, the current social policy of the EU is framed in the spirit of the conceptual system of the social state. The Fundamental Rights Charter (just as the “European Constitution Treaty”, as part of which it may become mandatory) does not reflect either the labour society or Europe of the peoples, but the conceptions of the capital, of political classes and eurocracy. Nevertheless: considering the power relations of global capitalism, we need to appreciate as an apparent actuality that in the midst of these relations the charter insists not only on the requirement of European unity, but also on a modernised version of the social conceptual system. The purpose of this treatise has been to highlight that social objectives cannot be treated as isolated from their economic and social context. We should not risk balance by the maintenance and preservation of a social-organisational framework via overspending, which altogether contradicts the possibility of development and the sustainability of equilibrated development.
Treating people as equals is one of the main aims of constitutional democracies. Numerous examples prove the adverse effects if a state violates the equality principles relating to ethnic minorities and religious groups. Here is a lesson from Hungary. The Hungarian Constitutional Court (hereinafter: HCC) is not engaged in adjudicating concrete ‘cases and controversies’, but seemingly reviews the constitutionality of laws. The Constitution lays down the fundamental tenets relating to religious groups, churches, ethnic minorities and the principles of equality in general. Thus, the question is how the problems of religions and minorities are reflected in the constitutional case-law.The main theses of this article are following. First, based on historical facts the HCC provides preferential treatment for so-called historical churches. Second, in cases involving Roma the HCC does not consider the historical facts and social reality thus, the discrimination of Roma does not appear in the jurisprudence. Third, the unequal protection of churches and Roma by the state results in advantages being provided where the constitutional reasons of preferential treatment are absent while the state remains inactive where the promotion of the principles of equality would be most necessary.
The Article gives a general overview of the Hungarian constitutional and legal framework for the participation of national minorities in the decision-making. The relatively low number of people belonging to national minorities in Hungary as well as the scattered patterns of their settlement and some aspects of the Hungarian legal traditions underlie the choice of the so called personal autonomy approach. The minorities can establish via a special electing mechanism local and national self-governments enjoying consultative and truly public law type rule-making and administrative competences. Having given the proper interpretation of the relevant article of the Constitution, the Constitutional Court also contributed to the birth of the Act on the Rights of Minorities. The basic reason behind the creation of a very complicated, multilevel institutional complex is that in this way, educational and cultural needs of minorities of different scale can be represented in a relatively coherent manner. This does not exclude at all the possibility of bringing modifications to the legal text in the light of a decade's experience.